Theo van Doesburg - Counter-CompositionV (1924)

History of Modern Art: De Stijl

Hello folks, our journey in modern art history resumes, and this time will review the De Stilj (or neoplasticism) movement!

De Stijl, Dutch for “The Style”, also known as neoplasticism, was a Dutch artistic movement founded in 1917. In a narrower sense, the term De Stijl is used to refer to a body of work from 1917 to 1931 founded in the Netherlands.

From the flurry of new art movements that followed the Impressionists’ revolutionary new perception of painting, Cubism arose in the early 20th century as an important and influential new direction. In the Netherlands, too, there was interest in this “new art.”

However, because the Netherlands remained neutral in World War I, Dutch artists were not able to leave the country after 1914 and were thus effectively isolated from the international art world—and in particular, from Paris, which was its centre at that time.

During that period, painter Theo van Doesburg started looking for other artists to set up a journal and start an art movement. Van Doesburg was also a writer, poet, and critic, who had been more successful writing about art than working as an independent artist. Quite adept at making new contacts due to his flamboyant personality and outgoing nature, he had many useful connections in the art world.

The artistic philosophy that formed a basis for the group’s work is known as neoplasticism — the new plastic art (or Nieuwe Beelding in Dutch).

Proponents of De Stijl sought to express a new utopian ideal of spiritual harmony and order. They advocated pure abstraction and universality by a reduction to the essentials of form and colour; they simplified visual compositions to the vertical and horizontal directions, and used only primary colors along with black and white.

Indeed, according to the Tate Gallery’s online article on neoplasticism, Mondrian himself sets forth these delimitations in his essay ‘Neo-Plasticism in Pictorial Art’. He writes,

… this new plastic idea will ignore the particulars of appearance, that is to say, natural form and colour. On the contrary, it should find its expression in the abstraction of form and colour, that is to say, in the straight line and the clearly defined primary colour.

The Tate article further summarizes that this art allows “only primary colours and non-colours, only squares and rectangles, only straight and horizontal or vertical line.

The Guggenheim Museum’s online article on De Stijl summarizes these traits in similar terms:

It [De Stijl] was posited on the fundamental principle of the geometry of the straight line, the square, and the rectangle, combined with a strong asymmetricality; the predominant use of pure primary colors with black and white; and the relationship between positive and negative elements in an arrangement of non-objective forms and lines.

Piet Mondrian - Composition with Yellow, Blue, and Red

Piet Mondrian – Composition with Yellow, Blue, and Red

The name De Stijl is supposedly derived from Gottfried Semper’s Der Stil in den technischen und tektonischen Künsten oder Praktische Ästhetik (1861–3), which Curl suggests was mistakenly believed to advocate materialism and functionalism. In general, De Stijl proposed ultimate simplicity and abstraction, both in architecture and painting, by using only straight horizontal and vertical lines and rectangular forms. Furthermore, their formal vocabulary was limited to the primary colours, red, yellow, and blue, and the three primary values, black, white, and grey. The works avoided symmetry and attained aesthetic balance by the use of opposition. This element of the movement embodies the second meaning of stijl: “a post, jamb or support”; this is best exemplified by the construction of crossing joints, most commonly seen in carpentry.

In many of the group’s three-dimensional works, vertical and horizontal lines are positioned in layers or planes that do not intersect, thereby allowing each element to exist independently and unobstructed by other elements. This feature can be found in the Rietveld Schröder House and the Red and Blue Chair.

De Stijl was influenced by Cubist painting as well as by the mysticism and the ideas about “ideal” geometric forms (such as the “perfect straight line”) in the neoplatonic philosophy of mathematician M.H.J. Schoenmaekers. The works of De Stijl would influence the Bauhaus style and the international style of architecture as well as clothing and interior design.

However, it did not follow the general guidelines of an “ism” (Cubism, Futurism, Surrealism), nor did it adhere to the principles of art schools like the Bauhaus; it was a collective project, a joint enterprise.

In music, De Stijl was an influence only on the work of composer Jakob van Domselaer, a close friend of Mondrian. Between 1913 and 1916, he composed his Proeven van Stijlkunst(Experiments in Artistic Style), inspired mainly by Mondrian’s paintings. This minimalistic—and, at the time, revolutionary—music defined “horizontal” and “vertical” musical elements and aimed at balancing those two principles. Van Domselaer was relatively unknown in his lifetime, and did not play a significant role within the De Stijl group.

Theo van Doesburg - Counter-Composition V (1924)

Theo van Doesburg – Counter-Composition V (1924)


Works by De Stijl members are scattered all over the world, but DeStijl themed exhibitions are organised regularly.

Museums with large De Stijl collections include the Gemeentemuseum in The Hague (which owns the world’s most extensive, although not exclusively De Stijl-related, Mondrian collection) and the Amsterdam Stedelijk Museum, where many works by Rietveld and Van Doesburg are on display.

The Centraal Museum of Utrecht has the largest Rietveld collection worldwide; it also owns the Rietveld Schröder House, Rietveld’s adjacent “show house,” and the Rietveld Schröder Archives.

De Stijl Artists

This list is not exhaustive. Because of the loose associations many artists had with De Stijl, it is difficult to get a complete overview of contributors.


Hope you enjoyed the article as much as i did compiling the info and the images! See you next time!

Articles’ Images are in the public domain because their copyright has expired or are displayed here under the “ fair use” copyright law, and are available through WikipediaWikimedia.

This Articles’ text is licensed under the Creative Commons BY-SA License since it partially uses material from Wikipedia.

Article publié pour la première fois le 02/02/2013

Surprise Your Spouse With Handmade Gifts2

Surprise Your Spouse With Handmade Gifts

Is your spouse’s birthday coming soon? Or is your anniversary just round the corner? Or you would like to surprise your beloved one for no reason at all, just to manifest your love towards him/her. That means you will need a nice and original present to give to your sweetheart. But what exactly? The stores are filled with tons of ‘ready’ gifts you can just pick up and give to your spouse, but this somehow shows lack of character, so to say. In other words, you need a unique present that is not already owned by thousands of people. And a sure way to achieve this is to come up with a nice idea and actually make the gift yourself. Not only will this be cheaper but also tells a lot for you in terms of how much you care for you significant other. Here are some ideas you can find interesting.

1. Cookies in a jar

What better way to show your love than through presenting sweets? If you and your spouse share the same opinion, try out this idea. It’s not actually the whole ready cookies, but rather all dry ingredients that constitute the cookies. They are to be layered in a jar and it will make up an attractive presentation. The jar can be decorated with ribbon and fabric and you can also use a small piece of string to attach the recipe to the jar.

2. Homemade bath salts in a jar

Another jar-related idea. What’s good about jars is that you can re-use old jar you have laying around the house, clean them well with E17 whatever you like and also decorate them. This gift is inexpensive AND luxurious. A typical recipe includes baking soda, sea salt, food coloring (it would be best to use natural varieties), some glycerin (it’s better if it’s vegetable-based) and the aromatic poils you like the most. Presentation is the key. Again, the jar can be decorated whichever way you prefer.

3. A holiday wreath

A welcoming and impressive holiday gift, whatever the occasion, is a living wreath. They are quite easy to make – you just need evergreen boughs, wire and assorted greenery. Plus an hour or two of free time. Soon, you will have a couple of wreaths which would cost you more than $50 if you were to buy them off the store.

4. A reusable shopping totebag

Now this is a nice gift that’s not only useful but also environmentally friendly. Nowadays,when there are literally millions of plastic bags used and disposed on a monthly basis, the use of a bag, made of fabric that one can carry to the store numerous times is more than encouraged. Basic sewing skills is all you need, as making such a bag is not that difficult.

5. DIY orange candles
It’s exactly what the name suggests – candles, made out of oranges. As with the previous projects, this one is also not to difficult to make. Get an orange, cut it in two half-spheres and scoop out the meaty part, leaving just the rind. On the bottom half-sphere, leave the stringy white part – it is to be used as a fuse. Fill the same half-sphere with olive oil and light the aforementioned stringy white part. Poke some holes into the top part and cover. You will not only have a romantic light, but also pleasant orange aroma.

Article Images are provided and/or licensed by the author.

Article by Cindy Davis

Cindy Davis is blogger, writer and housewife. She likes writing about home improvement and home maintenance topics, including household cleaning. Her present article includes helpful and useful tips on how to surprise your beloved one in untypical and original way.

Article publié pour la première fois le 22/03/2013


Fundraising with the help of sale of pictures

A picture is worth a thousand words. It is a cliché that is often used whenever a picture that holds significance emerges. Pictures can be of various types and anyone who holds a camera can take one from their very own perspective. Much is left to the imagination of the person who takes the snaps.

Selling photos can be an excellent idea for fundraising. One can make good use of these and hold a fundraising event for any given cause. The task needs proper planning and an ample supply of pictures that are put up for sale. There is also a need to promote the event well so that the patrons of this art are present at the moment to help you out further.

The Setting

The event should take place in a decent art gallery. If the funds needed from this fundraiser have a low target, you can also make a temporary arrangement in a community center. However, if you are looking to engage large level donors, you must be holding this event at a well known gallery.

You will also have to make arrangement for refreshments. Make sure that you have good quality catering and have professional servers at the event to facilitate the guests.

The Pictures

You will need to engage some good photographers for the event that are willing to donate their pictures. Some of these are likely going to ask for a percentage of the price of the pictures which is totally fine. The price will be set by either the photographers themselves or by and expert who values the art.

Also make sure that these pictures have their own unique elements and are not mere copies of previous works. Also acquire complete rights of the pictures from the photographers so that once a picture is sold, the person who buy it can use it whichever way he or she pleases. You will need to get this in writing from the photographer and a contract between the photographer and the buyer may also be needed.


There is a serious need to advertise the event. Make sure that people who are interested in particular art field are aware that the event is taking place. Advertise the event in the art magazines as well as in the newspapers. If you can get some ads on the radio channels as well, it should be to your advantage as well. The more the event is promoted, the more people will show up and thus, more funds will be raised.


Make sure that everything is executed as per the plan. Warmly receive all the dignitaries present at the event and leave no lacking in the quality of the hospitality. Also make sure that the purchase process is not too complicated and can be completed with ease. This will greatly help the guests as well as your cause at the same time and will add to the success of your efforts.

Featured Image: CC Attribution photo from Wikimedia Commons – source

 Article by Wilson

Wilson is senior content writer. He writes various article about many topics. Currently he is working for fundraising ideas that telling about how fundraisers ideas by sales pictures. He is also working for school fundraisers in Australia.

Article publié pour la première fois le 01/04/2013

Present Elite Romantic Gifts on Wedding Anniversary

Present Elite Romantic Gifts on Wedding Anniversary

Surely you want something luxurious for wedding anniversary as the event needs special celebration that is curtailed lacking heart-touching gifts. Your girl desires unique celebration on the day and it’s your delicacy to cherish every single moment for her warm hugs. It’s obligatory to put suitable attempts prior to finalizing gift for wedding ceremony. A little help can be anticipated from this blog that describes elite gift idea to memorize your wedding anniversary for lifetime.

You can opt for printing photos on canvas that is moreover the correct combination of beautiful gift and memorable assistance to uphold unforgettable moments of life. Various options described by print galleries where you upload wedding photographs and ask for printing on canvas. Its emerging trend followed by thousands of people and now became utmost possibility to rejoice wedding anniversary with finding unforgettable days in form of photo prints.

Tentative attempt made on various gift options but unable to acquire happiness, it’s the case with many of us but by choosing canvas prints, you may feel the real pleasure for lifetime. Collect your gift as fast as expected because art galleries offer 48 hours delivery on all processes orders. Time is precious so don’t waste it anyways. Find latest combination of art and culture at single place and pick beautiful canvases to print your wedding photograph.

If you are celebrating the first wedding anniversary then nothing will beat the impact generated by canvas prints, it is marvelous and most liked gift ever presented by you to anyone. Canvas prints presented on various occasions by people but it has unique appeal when liked for wedding anniversary celebration. Come across greatest range canvases and pick the best design for printing your wedding photograph.

Present romantic gift to your partner for expressing every single feel from bottom of your heart. Glorious impact generated by romantic gifts just like canvas prints and it’s the opportunity for you to procure finest gift on wedding anniversary for your life partner.  Most excellent form of gift will be selected by you as wedding celebration needs everything special.

I got the great gift for my life partner on first wedding anniversary and it was a beautiful artistic print I bought from canvas printer from UK, you can look on hundreds of designs presented by developers and pick out the best one.

Article by Mike

Mike is the editor and blog writer who also works for and has 10 years of experience writing art and photography related articles for readers.

Article publié pour la première fois le 09/04/2013

Creative Commons - Attribution photo by cskk on Flickr

The 5 Coolest Applications of 3d Printing So Far

3d Printing has taken the world by storm, and recently we’ve seen some very cool new innovations emerge out of the fledgling industry. While building small plastic replacement parts or sculptures was the most obvious application of this new medium, it was inevitable that more creative people would test the limits of their new printers to bring us new ideas that might revolutionize entire industries (or in other cases, just taste good or look awesome, either way they are here to stay).

Creative Commons - Attribution Photo by John AbellaChocolate Printing

Whoever first thought to use chocolate as a printing medium rather than the usual resins is a true genius. While we’ve been molding chocolate into bunnies, Santa Clauses, and various delicious textures for centuries we’ve finally reached the age where you can create a truly grand and intricate work of art that you can eat when you get bored of it.

Printed Clothing

While 3d printed shoes have been around since people started making sculptures (so the beginning basically), they’ve gotten increasingly wearable and led to much more complex constructions, such as linked cloth-like materials printed out to form other dresses, bags, and jewelry.

Phone Glove

A phone that comes in the form of  a glove probably won’t catch on as a mass-market product for the average consumers. We simply don’t need to have a phone permanently strapped to our hands when we can just as easily use a Bluetooth device and keep our hands free that way. That being said, the fact that it was made using a 3d printer is very interesting. Someone building one of these under their own expertise and power is a great example of how 3d printing is breaking down barriers to innovation by private individuals and small businesses. The phone glove might not be that exciting on its own, but it’s paving the way for the decentralization of electronics.

Creative Commons - Attribution photo by Shapeways on Flickr

Prosthetic Limbs

Out of everything that I found when digging around in the 3d printing world, this was the one that I found most exciting. Prosthetic limbs are usually very expensive, and developing a printable model that’s naturally fully customizable in terms of scale in pre-production eliminates a lot of middle men, and will make it much cheaper to both produce them and to develop new and better designs, since users of those limbs could theoretically contribute directly by modifying the 3d model design of their own prosthetics for future replacements.

Metal Printing

3d Printing is billed as a revolutionary innovation for a variety of reasons, and possibly the best reason is metal printing. The biggest problem with 3d printing up to this point was that plastics are a finite resource that’s already under a lot of stress due to our heavy global crude oil consumption. Metal printing is changing all of that. Selective laser sintering has existed for decades, but its full potential was never realized because of the lack of supporting technology at the time. Now it’s being used to push the limits of 3d printing to the next level.

Images License:

  • Creative Commons – Attribution photo by Shapeways on Flickr – source
  • Creative Commons – Attribution photo by cskk on Flickr – source
  • Creative Commons – Attribution Photo by John Abella – source

Article by Kyle Hurst

Kyle Hurst has a background in 3d modeling and B2B marketing. He’s currently pursuing his education further and writing about 3D plastic printing in his free time.



Article publié pour la première fois le 15/04/2013

CC Photo - Christmas egg scene with Snoopy and Woodstock by Kevin Dooley

Creative Gift Ideas for Christmas

CC Photo - Christmas egg scene with Snoopy and Woodstock by Kevin Dooley

CC Photo – Christmas egg scene with Snoopy and Woodstock by Kevin Dooley  – source

Merry Christmas everyone! With happiness, health and endless creativity :)

We hope you are enjoying our articles as much as we do writing them!

For those who want some last minute gift ideas for the New Years Eve, or for Christmas, I assembled for you some cool articles we had posted during December and you might missed them!

Christmas craft ideas for kids

As the days get darker, earlier, and the cold discourages kids from venturing outside I find that keeping them busy and occupied at this time of year is easy with festive arts and craft.

Since the purse strings are getting ever so tighter, Christmas crafts are great way to entertain the kids on a budget whilst creating some wonderful homemade gifts for teachers, family and friends.

The Best Ways To Give Unique/Custom Gifts

When you give someone a gift you will want it to be a personal and thoughtful gesture that will show them that you took the time and effort to think about them and that you know them well enough to choose a gift that they’ll really like. This means that just buying something from a list, or getting a film you know they want, won’t really make much of an impact or always be as well received as it could be – it might be thoughtful an well meant, but ultimately it’s something they could have made themselves. See how you can make the difference!

Creative Ways To Present Christmas Gifts

Coming up with new and unique ways to present your Christmas presents each year can be difficult. Personally I like my gift to stand out, to be that one gift under the tree that jumps out at you above all the rest. Christmas is about being lavish, going over the top and being eccentric. But how do you come up with something unique and eye catching? Here are some creative ideas to present your gifts this year!

Perfectly Capturing Christmas

With the Christmas season already in full swing, there are bound to be a multitude of seasonal photo opportunities that will create long-lasting memories.  However, there is nothing worse than a blurry group photo, or a dull photo of a Christmas tree.  Therefore, I thought now would be the perfect opportunity to present you with a handy guide to getting the most out of your Christmas photos, which will help you to perfectly capture the most wonderful time of the year. Because some times a photo can be the best gift in the world!

Finally for your designers friends we have the best gift you can give them! A book 😉

Top 10 Design Books for Christmas

With the opportunity of Christmas, I compiled several nice reading lists concerning various aspects of design. Mostly with books I have read and found interesting or i have marked to get in the near future. And I think that they have something to offer whether you are a junior designer or a grizzled award winning designer. Either way I am sure your designer friends will love them!

That’s all folks! Enjoy your Christmas!  And if you find yourself in the need to read something new while waiting for the festive dinner, we’ll be around with fresh material in a couple of hours :)

Article publié pour la première fois le 25/12/2012

Christy Thompson at Canal Room

Tips to Get Some Great Pictures on Events

Having been a part of some events as a photographer, I have come to understand that photography is more about catching the perfect moment rather than trying to make one. The beauty of the picture comes with the honesty and subtlety of the emotions that are being captured. Adding some simple touches to your work can make a world of difference to the results.

Introduce Yourself

At any event, a photographer is one of the people who will get in touch with just about everyone. Take a minute of the guest’s time and introduce yourself. Do make a polite request of photographing them so that once you take a picture, they do not express their displeasure on an unwanted picture being captured. Also ask them if they are interested in large size with relatively cheap canvas prints later on. Some might be interested in getting larger sizes of their snaps.

Study Your Audience

The people you will be photographing are your audience and like any artist, closely study them. Have a close look at their emotions of joy, pleasure, concern and care. Feel the energy and connect with them understanding their feelings.

Photograph with a Purpose

As you become more and more familiar with the event and the people, you will automatically be able to locate chances of capturing some great stills. As you have already sought permission, you can take some pictures without intimating the person who is being photographed. This often helps you bring out the very best of pictures. Many people are not comfortable with being photographed and act unnaturally in front of the camera. Catching them unaware can help you in taking some of their most memorable pictures. Also take the pictures considering that these may have to be printed on photo paper. If the pictures were to be printed on a larger size, for example, using canvas printing, will they look good?

Take Your Time

There are no prizes for clicking fast; it will only help you filling your memory cards with pictures that are not of good quality. Take your time if you want to get the best pictures. Make sure that the lens has been properly adjusted and lighting for the picture is adequate and you will not under or over expose the snap.

Take Multiple Photos

Make sure that you take at least two of a kind. Sometimes the best in the business are unable to deliver in a single snap shot or on occasions, a second shot is even better. Either way, having a back shot, if not two, is something you must do.

Get Closer

Although modern cameras allow you to zoom in from long distances, it is ideal that you get closer while you take a picture. The results in general get better and you are able to get sharper images. It also allows you to focus more on the person or persons you are looking to photograph and the distractions such as people moving around are least. A clearer picture will help in getting great results if one wants to have prints on canvas for these pictures.

Be Prepared

A great opportunity can arrive at any point. Never be in a slumber when you are working and be sure to have your mind ready for such an opportunity. As soon as one provides itself to you, pounce on it.

Be Yourself

Do not try to imitate other’s style of photography. Everyone has his or her own instinct and you must follow it. Know what suits you more and follow the style that you feel confident with. The rest will fall in place by itself.

Featured Image: CC NC Attribution photo by DeShaun Craddock – source

Article by Serven

Serven is professional writers he wrotes many article about different categories. Now is currently writing for photography tips.

Article publié pour la première fois le 26/02/2013


9 tips for designing awesome infographics

Have you notice how popular infographics have become?

Have you wondered how you can make your infographics stand out?

Present your info with them more efficiently?

If so keep reading!

Infographics is a way of presenting information using graphics. They tell a deeper and broader story than text alone, and usually take up less space as well. They can also communicate your information more quickly even If your audience can’t read well or doesn’t know the contained language that well.

Lemongraphic →Website simplified infographic design

Lemongraphic →Website simplified infographic design

Infographics is still design and need to abide by design rules (or at least break them consciously) in order to be efficient.

So you will need at least a basic knowledge of grids, layouts, elements and principles of design, color and typography. Also you will have to follow the same creative process as usually: understand the brief, research, ideate, sketch, refine. So in addition to the above let’s see what else we can do to make our infographics more efficient! Read more

Article publié pour la première fois le 25/11/2013


Perfect Poster Marketing Campaign: Top Steps

Posters are usually seen carrying promotional content that are strategically posted over the walls of the public areas to market different products and services. These remain the best tool to boost up your branding and visitors to your stores. The fact is a poster campaign is one of the oldest and best ways to boost up your brand awareness and profits. It is considered as the one of the most inexpensive marketing techniques, which gives message to your target customer base in a most effective ways. If you are planning to choose any marketing campaign for your business, you need to follow some of its important steps. Few of the top steps of a perfect poster marketing campaign as discussed as under. Let’s check them out:

Set your objectives

As said, if you are not able to plan, you simply plan to fail. The basic step, which you need for a perfect poster marketing campaign is to define your goals in a more clear and vivid fashion. You need to be very much specific while defining your objectives. For instance are you keen to reach out to hundred new customers, boost up your website traffic by 20% or simply grow your sales by 15%?

Once you set your basic goal, it’s time to measure and track your success. Defining your objectives or setting up goals will help you in knowing the way the poster campaign has to be carried out. It will also help you in the various aspects of poster like its design, printing option and distribution. Hence once you set up a goal; it becomes very much easy for you to design, print or distribute the posters that will help you to achieve your specific business objectives.

CC Photo by Pawel Janczarek

CC Photo by Pawel Janczarek

Your poster design should be attractive enough to get the attention of your prospects. It must be able to promote your brand and thus help to relate your customers to your business. The copy of your posters should be relevant and interesting. It should be able to promote your special limited offers in order to find instant action. It should carry a proper call to action, which is nothing but the next step, which your prospects should be able to take.

You are then supposed to print the posters over a premium quality paper at a competent cost for a perfect marketing campaign for your business. This step would involve a good team having designers, copywriters and online printing company, which will give a shape to your poster campaigns. Though this campaign would require some investments, your ROI would be far better and greater.

Distributing it with wisdom

A poster having some interesting video game may not strike near any daycare center, but certainly a collection of new toys for the kids would definitely have the response. Hence this is an important step of a perfect poster marketing campaign wherein you need to identify the best place to promote your products or services. Always put your posters at a place, which is regarded as high traffic zones where your target audience often dwells. By being in your target audience’s natural environment, you would end up noticing yourself.

Final word

Poster campaigns remain the oldest and the most effective means to increase your brand awareness and profits. In order to get the maximum out of it, you are supposed to follow few important steps. The above three steps make any poster campaign a perfect one increasing your bottom line.

Article by Margaret

Margaret is a writer/blogger. She loves writing, travelling and reading books. She contributes in Logix9. Check here for more on Logix9

Article publié pour la première fois le 21/02/2013

By:  Christopher Barson

A Guide to Choosing the Right Lighting for Your Home

Lighting is one of the most important elements of interior design. Good lighting doesn’t just make your home look nice, it also makes you feel safer, promotes feelings of wellbeing, and allows you to perform day-to-day tasks such as cooking, reading, or writing more easily.

The lighting you should choose for each room in your home will depend on the size of the room and what it is used for. Here’s a quick look at the range of lighting choices that are available to you.

The Living Room

Ideally, you should lay out your living room to take advantage of as much natural light as possible, so that it requires minimal lighting during the day. Most living rooms are multi-purpose rooms, where people spend time relaxing, watching TV, working, and practicing their favourite crafts or hobbies.

The multi-purpose nature of this room means that you need a good variety of lighting options. A central chandelier is a good starting point, and a nice form of decorative lighting, however extra lighting is needed to ensure that everyone in the room can see clearly, and that there are no ugly dark corners in the room.

Use multiple light sources, and choose the strength and type of each light carefully. Central lights should have a high lumens value (meaning that they glow brightly), while decorative lighting in the corners of the room can be softer and dimmer. In most cases, energy saving light bulbs are a good choice for the living room. If you suffer from migraines, however, then you may want to use halogen instead of CFL based bulbs.

Halls and Stairways

Halls and stairways aren’t places that people tend to spend a lot of time in, but that doesn’t mean that you can skimp on lighting in them. For safety, you should make sure that your stairways are well-lit.

A single pendant light will provide adequate lighting for a small porch, but stairwells require more than one light source. Place lighting fixtures eight feet apart. Consider matching the design of these light fixtures to the chandelier in your hallway for a stylish look.

The Kitchen

Lighting in the kitchen must be both functional and decorative. Opt for fluorescent under-cabinet lighting to minimise shadows in your work area. Add strong recessed ceiling lights around the walls, and pay particular attention to the amount and quality of light near your sink, oven, and anywhere else where you will be doing a lot of work.

Choose light that is glows brightly and is as close to the colour of daylight as possible (such as a halogen light) so that you can see clearly while preparing food.


Opt for multiple lighting sources in the bedroom. Consider a single pendulum light in the centre of the room, lamps with dimmer switches on either side of the bed, subtle down lighting near your dressing table, and lights around your wardrobe and mirror.

The bedroom is the only room where having an absence of light is a good thing. Use heavy curtains or blinds to block out light from outside, and make sure that the light sources you introduce into the room are not overly harsh.

Featured Image: Creative Commons – Attribution by Christopher Barson

Article by A. Elliott

This article was written by A. Elliott for Juice Electrical energy saving devices.

Article publié pour la première fois le 23/04/2013

Max Ernst, L'Ange du Foyer ou le Triomphe du Surréalisme (1937), private collection.

History of Modern Art: Surrealism

Hello folks, welcome back to our weekly series of History of Modern Art. Today we’ll review the movement of Surrealism.

Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for its visual artworks and writings. Surrealist works feature the element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur; however, many Surrealist artists and writers regard their work as an expression of the philosophical movement first and foremost, with the works being an artefact. Leader André Breton was explicit in his assertion that Surrealism was above all a revolutionary movement.

Surrealism developed out of the Dada activities during World War I and the most important center of the movement was Paris. From the 1920s onward, the movement spread around the globe, eventually affecting the visual arts, literature, film, and music of many countries and languages, as well as political thought and practice, philosophy, and social theory.

World War I scattered the writers and artists who had been based in Paris, and in the interim many became involved with Dada, believing that excessive rational thought and bourgeois values had brought the conflict of the war upon the world. The Dadaists protested with anti-art gatherings, performances, writings and art works. After the war, when they returned to Paris, the Dada activities continued.

During the war, André Breton, who had trained in medicine and psychiatry, served in a neurological hospital where he used Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic methods with soldiers suffering from shell-shock. Meeting the young writer Jacques Vaché, Breton felt that Vaché was the spiritual son of writer and pataphysics founder Alfred Jarry.

He admired the young writer’s anti-social attitude and disdain for established artistic tradition. Later Breton wrote, “In literature, I was successively taken with Rimbaud, with Jarry, with Apollinaire, with Nouveau, with Lautréamont, but it is Jacques Vaché to whom I owe the most.

Salvador Dalí, The Persistence of Memory (1931), Museum of Modern Art, Manhattan

Salvador Dalí, The Persistence of Memory (1931)

As they developed their philosophy, they believed that Surrealism would advocate the idea that ordinary and depictive expressions are vital and important, but that the sense of their arrangement must be open to the full range of imagination according to the Hegelian Dialectic. They also looked to the Marxist dialectic and the work of such theorists as Walter Benjamin and Herbert Marcuse.

Freud’s work with free association, dream analysis, and the unconscious was of utmost importance to the Surrealists in developing methods to liberate imagination. They embraced idiosyncrasy, while rejecting the idea of an underlying madness. Later, Salvador Dalí explained it as: “There is only one difference between a madman and I. I am not mad.”

Beside the use of dream analysis, they emphasized that “one could combine inside the same frame, elements not normally found together to produce illogical and startling effects.” Breton included the idea of the startling juxtapositions in his 1924 manifesto, taking it in turn from a 1918 essay by poet Pierre Reverdy, which said: “a juxtaposition of two more or less distant realities. The more the relationship between the two juxtaposed realities is distant and true, the stronger the image will be — the greater its emotional power and poetic reality.”

In 1924 they declared their philosophy in the first “Surrealist Manifesto”. That same year they established the Bureau of Surrealist Research, and began publishing the journal La Révolution surréaliste.

Breton wrote the manifesto of 1924 that defines the purposes of the group. He included citations of the influences on Surrealism, examples of Surrealist works and discussion of Surrealist automatism. He defined Surrealism as:

  1. Surrealism, noun: Pure psychic automatism, by which one proposes to express, either verbally, in writing, or by any other manner, the real functioning of thought. Dictation of thought in the absence of all control exercised by reason, outside of all aesthetic and moral preoccupation.
  2. SurrealismPhilosophy: Surrealism is based on the belief in the superior reality of certain forms of previously neglected associations, in the omnipotence of dream, in the disinterested play of thought. It tends to ruin once and for all other psychic mechanisms and to substitute itself for them in solving all the principal problems of life.


The movement in the mid-1920s was characterized by meetings in cafes where the Surrealists played collaborative drawing games, discussed the theories of Surrealism, and developed a variety of techniques such as automatic drawing. Breton initially doubted that visual arts could even be useful in the Surrealist movement since they appeared to be less malleable and open to chance and automatism. This caution was overcome by the discovery of such techniques as frottage and decalcomania.

Soon more visual artists became involved, including Giorgio de Chirico, Max Ernst, Joan Miró, Francis Picabia, Yves Tanguy, Salvador Dalí, Luis Buñuel, Alberto Giacometti, Valentine Hugo, Méret Oppenheim, Toyen, and later after the second war: Enrico Donati. Though Breton admired Pablo Picasso and Marcel Duchamp and courted them to join the movement, they remained peripheral. More writers also joined, including former Dadaist Tristan Tzara, René Char, and Georges Sadoul.

Throughout the 1930s, Surrealism continued to become more visible to the public at large. A Surrealist group developed in Britain and, according to Breton, their 1936 London International Surrealist Exhibition was a high water mark of the period and became the model for international exhibitions.

Dalí and Magritte created the most widely recognized images of the movement. Dalí joined the group in 1929, and participated in the rapid establishment of the visual style between 1930 and 1935.
Surrealism as a visual movement had found a method: to expose psychological truth by stripping ordinary objects of their normal significance, in order to create a compelling image that was beyond ordinary formal organization, in order to evoke empathy from the viewer.

Yves Tanguy Indefinite Divisibility 1942, Albright Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York

Yves Tanguy Indefinite Divisibility (1942)

1931 was a year when several Surrealist painters produced works which marked turning points in their stylistic evolution: Magritte’s Voice of Space (La Voix des airs) is an example of this process, where three large spheres representing bells hang above a landscape. Another Surrealist landscape from this same year is Yves Tanguy’s Promontory Palace (Palais promontoire), with its molten forms and liquid shapes. Liquid shapes became the trademark of Dalí, particularly in his The Persistence of Memory, which features the image of watches that sag as if they were melting.

The characteristics of this style—a combination of the depictive, the abstract, and the psychological—came to stand for the alienation which many people felt in the modern period, combined with the sense of reaching more deeply into the psyche, to be “made whole with one’s individuality”.

Between 1930 and 1933, the Surrealist Group in Paris issued the periodical Le Surrealisme au service de la revolution as the successor of La Révolution surréaliste. From 1936 through 1938 Wolfgang Paalen, Gordon Onslow Ford, and Roberto Matta joined the group. Paalen contributed Fumage and Onslow Ford Coulage as new pictorial automatic techniques.

Long after personal, political and professional tensions fragmented the Surrealist group, Magritte and Dalí continued to define a visual program in the arts. This program reached beyond painting, to encompass photography as well, as can be seen from a Man Ray self-portrait, whose use of assemblage influenced Robert Rauschenberg’s collage boxes.

World War II created havoc not only for the general population of Europe but especially for the European artists and writers that opposed Fascism, and Nazism. Many important artists fled to North America, and relative safety in the United States. The art community in New York City in particular was already grappling with Surrealist ideas and several artists like Arshile Gorky, Jackson Pollock, Robert Motherwell, and Roberto Matta, converged closely with the surrealist artists themselves, albeit with some suspicion and reservations.

Ideas concerning the unconscious and dream imagery were quickly embraced. By the Second World War, the taste of the American avant-garde in New York City swung decisively towards Abstract Expressionism with the support of key taste makers, including Peggy Guggenheim, Leo Steinberg and Clement Greenberg. However, it should not be easily forgotten that Abstract Expressionism itself grew directly out of the meeting of American (particularly New York) artists with European Surrealists self-exiled during World War II.

In particular, Arshile Gorky and Wolfgang Paalen influenced the development of this American art form, which, as Surrealism did, celebrated the instantaneous human act as the well-spring of creativity. The early work of many Abstract Expressionists reveals a tight bond between the more superficial aspects of both movements, and the emergence (at a later date) of aspects of Dadaistic humor in such artists as Rauschenberg sheds an even starker light upon the connection.

Up until the emergence of Pop Art, Surrealism can be seen to have been the single most important influence on the sudden growth in American arts, and even in Pop, some of the humor manifested in Surrealism can be found, often turned to a cultural criticism.

Hope you enjoyed the article as much as i did compiling the info and the images! See you next time!

Articles’ Images are in the public domain because their copyright has expired or are displayed here under the “ fair use” copyright law, and are available through WikipediaWikimedia.

This Articles’ text is licensed under the Creative Commons BY-SA License since it partially uses material from Wikipedia.

Article publié pour la première fois le 23/02/2013

Gustave Courbet - After Dinner at Ornans

Life and Paintings of Gustave Courbet (1819 – 1877)

Jean Désiré Gustave Courbet (10 June 1819 – 31 December 1877) was a French painter who led the Realist movement in 19th-century French painting. The Realist movement bridged the Romantic movement (characterized by the paintings of Théodore Géricault and Eugène Delacroix) with the Barbizon School and the Impressionists. Courbet occupies an important place in 19th century French painting as an innovator and as an artist willing to make bold social commentary in his work.

Movements: Realism, Social Realism

Courbet painted figurative compositions, landscapes, seascapes, and still-lifes. He courted controversy by addressing social issues in his work, and by painting subjects that were considered vulgar, such as the rural bourgeoisie, peasants, and working conditions of the poor. His work belonged neither to the predominant Romantic nor Neoclassical schools. History painting, which the Paris Salon esteemed as a painter’s highest calling, did not interest Courbet, who stated that “the artists of one century [are] basically incapable of reproducing the aspect of a past or future century …” Instead, he believed that the only possible source for a living art is the artist’s own experience.

Gustave Courbet - Young Women from the Village

Gustave Courbet – Young Women from the Village

His work, along with the work of Honoré Daumier and Jean-François Millet, became known as Realism. For Courbet realism dealt not with the perfection of line and form, but entailed spontaneous and rough handling of paint, suggesting direct observation by the artist while portraying the irregularities in nature. He depicted the harshness in life, and in so doing challenged contemporary academic ideas of art.

Courbet was born in 1819 to Régis and Sylvie Oudot Courbet in Ornans (department of Doubs). Though a prosperous farming family, anti-monarchical feelings prevailed in the household. (His maternal grandfather fought in the French Revolution.) Courbet’s sisters, Zoé, Zélie and Juliette, were his first models for drawing and painting. After moving to Paris he returned home to Ornans often to hunt, fish and find inspiration. He went to Paris in 1839 and worked at the studio of Steuben and Hesse. An independent spirit, he soon left, preferring to develop his own style by studying the paintings of Spanish, Flemish and French masters in the Louvre, and painting copies of their work.

His first works were an Odalisque suggested by the writing of Victor Hugo and a Lélia illustrating George Sand, but he soon abandoned literary influences, choosing instead to base his paintings on observed reality. Among his paintings of the early 1840s are several self-portraits, Romantic in conception, in which the artist portrayed himself in various roles. These include Self-Portrait with Black Dog (c. 1842–1844, accepted for exhibition at the 1844 Paris Salon), the theatrical Self-Portrait which is also known as Desperate Man (c. 1843–45), Lovers in the Countryside (1844, Musée des Beaux-Arts, Lyon), The Sculptor (1845), The Wounded Man (1844–1854, Musée d’Orsay, Paris), The Cellist, Self-Portrait (1847, Nationalmuseum, Stockholm, shown at the 1848 Salon), and The Man with a Pipe (c. 1848–1849, Musée d’Orsay, Paris).

Trips to the Netherlands and Belgium in 1846–1847 strengthened Courbet’s belief that painters should portray the life around them, as Rembrandt, Hals and other Dutch masters had. By 1848, he had gained supporters among the younger critics, the Neo-romantics and Realists, notably Champfleury.

Courbet achieved greater recognition after the success of his painting After Dinner at Ornans at the Salon of 1849. The work, reminiscent of Chardin and Le Nain, earned Courbet a gold medal and was purchased by the state.[5] The gold medal meant that his works would no longer require jury approval for exhibition at the Salon —an exemption Courbet enjoyed until 1857 when the rule changed).

Gustave Courbet - The Stonebreakers

Gustave Courbet – The Stonebreakers

In 1849 Courbet painted Stone-Breakers (destroyed in the British Bombing of Dresden in 1945), which Proudhon admired as an icon of peasant life; it has been called “the first of his great works”. The painting was inspired by a scene Courbet witnessed on the roadside. He later explained to Champfleury and the writer Francis Wey, “It is not often that one encounters so complete an expression of poverty and so, right then and there I got the idea for a painting. I told them to come to my studio the next morning.”

The Salon of 1850–1851[10] found him triumphant with The Stone Breakers, the Peasants of Flagey and A Burial at Ornans. The Burial, one of Courbet’s most important works, records the funeral of his grand uncle[11] which he attended in September 1848. People who attended the funeral were the models for the painting. Previously, models had been used as actors in historical narratives, but in Burial Courbet said he “painted the very people who had been present at the interment, all the townspeople”. The result is a realistic presentation of them, and of life in Ornans.

The vast painting—it measures 10 by 22 feet (3.1 by 6.6 meters)—drew both praise and fierce denunciations from critics and the public, in part because it upset convention by depicting a prosaic ritual on a scale which previously would have been reserved for a religious or royal subject.

According to art historian Sarah Faunce, “In Paris the Burial was judged as a work that had thrust itself into the grand tradition of history painting, like an upstart in dirty boots crashing a genteel party, and in terms of that tradition it was of course found wanting.”

The painting lacks the sentimental rhetoric that was expected in a genre work: Courbet’s mourners make no theatrical gestures of grief, and their faces seemed more caricatured than ennobled. The critics accused Courbet of a deliberate pursuit of ugliness.

Eventually, the public grew more interested in the new Realist approach, and the lavish, decadent fantasy of Romanticism lost popularity. The artist well understood the importance of the painting. Courbet said of it, “The Burial at Ornans was in reality the burial of Romanticism.”

Courbet became a celebrity, and was spoken of as a genius, a “terrible socialist” and a “savage”. He actively encouraged the public’s perception of him as an unschooled peasant, while his ambition, his bold pronouncements to journalists, and his insistence on depicting his own life in his art gave him a reputation for unbridled vanity.

Gustave Courbet - Three English Girls at a Window

Gustave Courbet – Three English Girls at a Window

Gustave Courbet - Young Ladies by the River Seine

Gustave Courbet – Young Ladies by the River Seine

Gustave Courbet - The Studio of the Painter

Gustave Courbet – The Studio of the Painter

Gustave Courbet - The Sleeping Spinner

Gustave Courbet – The Sleeping Spinner

Gustave Courbet - The Meeting or Bonjour Monsieur Courbet

Gustave Courbet – The Meeting or Bonjour Monsieur Courbet

Gustave Courbet - The Grain Sifters

Gustave Courbet – The Grain Sifters

Gustave Courbet - Firemen Running to a Fire

Gustave Courbet – Firemen Running to a Fire

Gustave Courbet - Burial at Ornans

Gustave Courbet – Burial at Ornans

Gustave Courbet - After Dinner at Ornans

Gustave Courbet – After Dinner at Ornans

Courbet associated his ideas of realism in art with political anarchism, and, having gained an audience, he promoted democratic and socialist ideas by writing politically motivated essays and dissertations. His familiar visage was the object of frequent caricature in the popular French press.

To a friend in 1850 he wrote:

 …in our so very civilized society it is necessary for me to live the life of a savage. I must be free even of governments. The people have my sympathies, I must address myself to them directly.

Gustave Courbet - The Woman in the Waves

Gustave Courbet – The Woman in the Waves

During the Paris Commune in 1871, Courbet proposed that the Vendôme Column be disassembled and re-erected in the Hôtel des Invalides. Courbet argued that:

In as much as the Vendôme Column is a monument devoid of all artistic value, tending to perpetuate by its expression the ideas of war and conquest of the past imperial dynasty, which are reproved by a republican nation’s sentiment, citizen Courbet expresses the wish that the National Defense government will authorise him to disassemble this column.”

This project was not adopted, but on 12 April 1871 the dismantling of the imperial symbol was voted, and the column taken down on 16 May, with no intentions of rebuilding it. The bronze plates were preserved.

For his insistence in executing the Communal decree for the destruction of the Vendôme Column, he was designated as responsible for the act and accordingly sentenced on 2 September 1871 by a Versailles court martial to six months in prison and a fine of 500 francs. During his incarceration, Courbet painted several still-life compositions.

In 1872 he depicted his imprisonment in the Self-Portrait at Ste.-Pélagie. After the assault on the Paris Commune by Adolphe Thiers, head of the new provisional national government, the decision was taken to rebuild the column with its statue of Napoléon. In 1873, the newly elected president Mac-Mahon wanted to resurrect the Column. On his own previous proposition, Gustave Courbet was singled out and condemned to pay the expenses. Unable to pay, Courbet went into a self-imposed exile in Switzerland to avoid bankruptcy. The next years he participated quite actively in some regional and national exhibitions. Observed by the intelligence service, he enjoyed in the small Swiss art world the dubious reputation as head of the “realist school” and inspired younger artists like Auguste Baud-Bovy and Ferdinand Hodler.

From this period date several paintings of trout, “hooked and bleeding from the gills”, that have been interpreted as allegorical self-portraits of the exiled artist.

On 4 May 1877, the estimate of the cost of rebuiling the Vendome Column was finally established: 323,091 francs and 68 centimes. Courbet was “allowed” to pay the fine in yearly installments of 10,000 francs for the next 33 years, until his 91st birthday. On 31 December 1877, a day before the payment of the first installment was due, Courbet died, age 58, in La Tour-de-Peilz, Switzerland, of a liver disease aggravated by heavy drinking.

Courbet was admired by many younger artists. Claude Monet included a portrait of Courbet in his own version of Le dejeuner sur l’herbe from 1865–1866. Courbet’s particular kind of realism influenced many artists to follow, notably among them the German painters of the Leibl circle, James McNeill Whistler, and Paul Cézanne.

Courbet’s influence can also be seen in the work of Edward Hopper, whose Bridge in Paris (1906) and Approaching a City (1946) have been described as Freudian echoes of Courbet’s The Source of the Loue and The Origin of the World.

Hope you enjoyed the article as much as i did compiling the info and the images! See you next time!

Articles’ Images are in the public domain because their copyright has expired or are displayed here under the “ fair use” copyright law, and are available through WikipediaWikimedia.

This Articles’ text is licensed under the Creative Commons BY-SA License since it partially uses material from Wikipedia.

Article publié pour la première fois le 25/04/2014

great creative design1

Great Creative Designs In Adverts

Business cards are used by individuals to advertise their work, but other methods can be utilised by companies to promote their business. Creative designs are best used to get people’s attention, and this article will outline designs which especially caught our eye. Designs which are intriguing, interesting, colourful or humorous will all most likely demand the attention of the person viewing it. The designs contained within this article embody a diverse range of design styles.

Bluebird’s Appealing Design

Image provided by Author

Image provided by Author

The business card to the right uses a stark baby blue colour, which is extremely pleasant on the eye and creates an immediate attraction. The writing is contained within the silhouette of a bird, and has various other patterns below which bring dimension to the card. It uses a very sleek and comfortable design which immediately draws you closer, whilst maintaining a style which isn’t over complicated. Here simple patterns and colours are used to achieve the purpose of the business card, with very recognisable images of birds which are suitable both visually and in the context of the company name. This card is an example of how a business card without gimmicks can be effectively designed, using simple yet appealing colours and design.

Image provided by Author

Image provided by Author

Bosch’s Dinosaur Leg

The advert to your left is quite a humorous over exaggerated statement made by Bosch, who advertises freezers. The advert intends to promote the reliability and length of time their fridges are guaranteed for, by suggesting they last for so long you could pull a dinosaur leg out of there and it still wouldn’t have gone off. This is an ode to the guarantee that Bosch freezers will run for long periods of time, setting up a level of expectation for a long freezer life. This is a creative design since the dinosaur leg doesn’t even feel out of place, despite the ridiculousness of even considering a dinosaur leg to exist in that form in this day and age. The design shows other condiments and equipment to accompany the leg, in an attempt to show that it’s not out of place with modern items. The user will likely spend at least some time trying to work out what is being suggested by the advert, and if the freezers work that well I might have to buy one myself!

Image provided by Author

Image provided by Author

Pravina’s Circular Design

These circular cards have been creatively designed, with a shape unaccustomed to business cards. This helps them to stand out, alongside the use of black, a bold shade, and red which is a primary colour. These colour cards will stand out amongst others (especially white), particularly when they are also circular! The elevated writing is another unique element which draws attention to the company name. The ridged writing gives a memorable feel when moving across it with your finger, amidst taking in the shock of viewing such unique cards. This design is interesting because it shows the effective simplicity of design; where often business cards can be overcomplicated with elaborate design. These are guaranteed to take the viewer’s eyes and be held onto, and also when two different cards are held together it creates an incredible contrast of colour. For unique business cards and unique sizes of club flyers, check out NextDayFlyers – they have a great selection.

Article publié pour la première fois le 04/02/2013

Creative Commons - Attribution photo by Jeff Vier

Making Homemade Inks

With hundreds of different types of inks available to each of anyone on the internet, making your own ink has become the practice confined to a very specific breed of pen nerds; the nostalgic purists, the picky perfectionists, and the cheap (ahem, “thrifty”). Whatever your reason, making ink has a long and rich history and gives us a variety of options to choose from, and being creative people we’re not above inventing our own recipes.

Tea Ink

The easiest functional ink that you can make is tea ink. Just boil about a cup of water and put 3-5 tea bags in to steep for about a half hour. Then dissolve some gum Arabic or carrageenan in the hot tea to thicken it slightly and let it cool. Bottle it up and there you have some non-toxic, edible ink. Keep in mind that any ink made from tea or berries is going to be acidic so if you’re writing anything that you want your great-great-great grandchildren to read you might want to use something else. In most cases it isn’t a concern since most writing paper that’s available is going to degrade on it’s own just as quickly as it would when catalyzed by acidic ink.

Powder Pigments

Once you feel a bit more adventurous you can move on to powder pigments. Classic and highly effective is lampblack, charcoal, or crushed minerals or seashells. If you’re interested in trying more plant oriented things you can try grinding up dried tree bark, herbs, and flowers. The trick to this is to dry the colored bit that you want (usually flower petals) on a paper towel or bit of cloth until it’s looking nice and crispy and to then crush them into a fine powder with a mortar and pestle. To get the pigment out of the cells and floating free in your ink you’ll then want to add some alcohol until you’ve got a thick paste. After that you can add your favorite thinners and thickeners to build your ink consistency.

Thinning/Thickening Agents

Because non-water based inks lack surface tension and sink into the page much more quickly with increased risk of bleeding I prefer to stick with water. If you go with that philosophy that means that besides water, which will usually leave your ink very runny and might let your ink smudge even after it’s dried, you’ll need to add a thickener, preferably a sticky one. The gums mentioned in the paragraph above make effective thickeners, but since not everyone has that sitting in their kitchen cabinet I tend to go with simple old corn starch. Food starch is a natural glue and will do the job reasonably well. That being said, I still know several people who swear by linseed oil instead of water, which will give you a nice consistency without the need for thickeners. For my part I’m going to be sticking with water based inks because I don’t like bleedy inks.

Featured Image: Creative Commons – Attribution photo by Jeff Vier – source

Article by Alice Jenkins

Alice Jenkins is a writer, graphic designer and marketer. When Alice isn’t trying to figure out whole stole her favorite red pen, she writes about web design, small business branding and marketing trends. Alice writes for PensXpress, a business that specializes in custom imprinted pens.


Article publié pour la première fois le 05/04/2013