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Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres - Roger Freeing Angelica

Life and Paintings of Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1780 – 1867)

Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (29 August 1780 – 14 January 1867) was a French Neoclassical painter. Although he considered himself to be a painter of history in the tradition of Nicolas Poussin and Jacques-Louis David, by the end of his life it was Ingres’s portraits, both painted and drawn, that were recognized as his greatest legacy.

Movements: Classicism, Neoclassicism, Orientalism

Note: Some of Ingres’ paintings contain nudity. If it offends you, please don’t read the article!

A man profoundly respectful of the past, he assumed the role of a guardian of academic orthodoxy against the ascendant Romantic style represented by his nemesis Eugène Delacroix. His exemplars, he once explained, were “the great masters which flourished in that century of glorious memory when Raphael set the eternal and incontestable bounds of the sublime in art … I am thus a conservator of good doctrine, and not an innovator.”

Life and Paintings of Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1780   1867)   Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres The Grand Odalisque

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres – The Grand Odalisque

Nevertheless, modern opinion has tended to regard Ingres and the other Neoclassicists of his era as embodying the Romantic spirit of his time, while his expressive distortions of form and space make him an important precursor of modern art.

Ingres was born in Montauban, Tarn-et-Garonne, France, the first of seven children (five of whom survived infancy) of Jean-Marie-Joseph Ingres (1755–1814) and his wife Anne Moulet (1758–1817). His father was a successful jack-of-all-trades in the arts, a painter of miniatures, sculptor, decorative stonemason, and amateur musician; his mother was the nearly illiterate daughter of a master wigmaker.

From his father the young Ingres received early encouragement and instruction in drawing and music, and his first known drawing, a study after an antique cast, was made in 1789. Starting in 1786 he attended the local school École des Frères de l’Éducation Chrétienne, but his education was disrupted by the turmoil of the French Revolution, and the closing of the school in 1791 marked the end of his conventional education. The deficiency in his schooling would always remain for him a source of insecurity.

In 1791, Joseph Ingres took his son to Toulouse, where the young Jean-Auguste-Dominique was enrolled in the Académie Royale de Peinture, Sculpture et Architecture. There he studied under the sculptor Jean-Pierre Vigan, the landscape painter Jean Briant, and—most importantly—the painter Joseph Roques, who imparted to the young artist his veneration of Raphael.

Ingres’s musical talent was further developed under the tutelage of the violinist Lejeune. From the ages of thirteen to sixteen he was second violinist in the Orchestre du Capitole de Toulouse, and he would continue to play the violin as an avocation for the rest of his life.

Having been awarded first prize in drawing by the Academy, in August 1797 he traveled to Paris to study with Jacques-Louis David, France’s—and Europe’s—leading painter during the revolutionary period, in whose studio he remained for four years. Ingres followed his master’s neoclassical example but revealed, according to David, “a tendency toward exaggeration in his studies.”

He was admitted to the Painting Department of the École des Beaux-Arts in October 1799, and won, after tying for second place in 1800, theGrand Prix de Rome in 1801 for his Ambassadors of Agamemnon in the tent of Achilles. His trip to Rome, however, was postponed until 1806, when the financially strained government finally appropriated the travel funds.

Working in Paris alongside several other students of David in a studio provided by the state, he further developed a style that emphasized purity of contour. He found inspiration in the works of Raphael, in Etruscan vase paintings, and in the outline engravings of the English artist John Flaxman.

In 1802 he made his debut at the Salonwith Portrait of a Woman (the current whereabouts of which are unknown). The following year brought a prestigious commission, when Ingres was one of five artists selected (along with Jean-Baptiste Greuze, Robert Lefèvre, Charles Meynier, and Marie-Guillemine Benoist) to paint full-length portraits of Napoleon Bonaparte as First Consul. These were to be distributed to the prefectural towns of Liège, Antwerp, Dunkerque, Brussels, andGhent, all of which were newly ceded to France in the 1801 Treaty of Lunéville. As it is unlikely that Napoleon granted the artists a sitting, Ingres’ meticulously painted portrait of Bonaparte, First Consul appears to be modelled on an image of Napoleon painted by Antoine-Jean Gros in 1802.

In the summer of 1806 Ingres became engaged to Marie-Anne-Julie Forestier, a painter and musician, before leaving for Rome in September.

At the Salon, his paintings—Self-Portrait, portraits of the Rivière family, and Napoleon I on his Imperial Throne—produced a disturbing impression on the public, due to not only Ingres’s stylistic idiosyncrasies but also his adoption of Carolingian imagery in representing Napoleon.David delivered a severe judgement, and the critics were uniformly hostile, finding fault with the strange discordances of colour, the want of sculptural relief, the chilly precision of contour, and the self-consciously archaic quality. Chaussard (Le Pausanias Français, 1806) condemned Ingres’s style as gothic and asked: How, with so much talent, a line so flawless, an attention to detail so thorough, has M. Ingres succeeded in painting a bad picture? The answer is that he wanted to do something singular, something extraordinary … M. Ingres’s intention is nothing less than to make art regress by four centuries, to carry us back to its infancy, to revive the manner of Jean de Bruges.

As art historian Marjorie Cohn has written: “At the time, art history as a scholarly enquiry was brand-new. Artists and critics outdid each other in their attempts to identify, interpret, and exploit what they were just beginning to perceive as historical stylistic developments.”

The Louvre, newly filled with booty seized by Napoleon in his campaigns in Belgium, Holland, and Italy, provided French artists of the early 19th century with an unprecedented opportunity to study, compare, and copy masterworks from antiquity and from the entire history of European painting. From the beginning of his career, Ingres freely borrowed from earlier art, adopting the historical style appropriate to his subject, leading critics to charge him with plundering the past.

Newly arrived in Rome, Ingres read with mounting indignation the relentlessly negative press clippings sent to him from Paris by his friends. In letters to his prospective father-in-law, he expressed his outrage at the critics: “So the Salon is the scene of my disgrace; … The scoundrels, they waited until I was away to assassinate my reputation … I have never been so unhappy.”

He vowed never again to exhibit at the Salon, and his refusal to return to Paris led to the breaking up of his engagement. Julie Forestier, when asked years later why she had never married, responded, “When one has had the honor of being engaged to M. Ingres, one does not marry.”

Installed in a studio on the grounds of the Villa Medici, Ingres continued his studies and, as required of every winner of the Prix, he sent works at regular intervals to Paris so his progress could be judged. As his envoi of 1808 Ingres sent Oedipus and the Sphinx and The Valpinçon Bather (both now in the Louvre), hoping by these two paintings to demonstrate his mastery of the male and female nude, but they were poorly received.

In later years Ingres painted variants of both compositions; another nude begun in 1807, the Venus Anadyomene, remained in an unfinished state for decades, to be completed forty years later and finally exhibited in 1855.

He produced numerous portraits during this period: Madame Duvauçay, François-Marius Granet, Edme-François-Joseph Bochet, Madame Panckoucke, and that of Madame la Comtesse de Tournon, mother of the prefect of the department of the Tiber. In 1810 Ingres’s pension at the Villa Medici ended, but he decided to stay in Rome and seek patronage from the French occupation government.

Although facing uncertain prospects, in 1813 Ingres married a young woman, Madeleine Chapelle, who had been recommended to him by her friends in Rome. After a courtship carried out through correspondence, he proposed to her without having met her, and she accepted. Their marriage was a happy one, and Madame Ingres acquired a faith in her husband which enabled her to combat with courage and patience the difficulties of their common existence. He continued to suffer the indignity of disparaging reviews, as Don Pedro of Toledo Kissing the Sword of Henry IV, Raphael and the Fornarina (Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University), several portraits, and the Interior of the Sistine Chapel met a generally hostile critical response at the Paris Salon of 1814.

Ingres traveled to Naples in the spring of 1814 to paint Queen Caroline Murat, and the Murat family ordered additional portraits as well as three modestly scaled works: The Betrothal of Raphael, La Grande Odalisque, and Paolo and Francesca. Apart from theBetrothal, however, he never received payment for these paintings, due to the collapse of the Murat regime in 1815.

With the fall of Napoleon’s dynasty, he found himself essentially stranded in Rome without patronage. During this low point of his career, Ingres was forced to depend for his livelihood on the execution, in pencil, of small portrait drawings of the many tourists, in particular the English, passing through postwar Rome. For an artist who aspired to a reputation as a history painter, this seemed menial work, and to the visitors who knocked on his door asking, “Is this where the man who draws the little portraits lives?”, he would answer with irritation, “No, the man who lives here is a painter!”

Nevertheless, the portrait drawings he produced in such profusion during this period are of outstanding quality, and rank today among his most admired works.

Ingres and his wife moved to Florence in 1820 at the urging of the Florentine sculptor Lorenzo Bartolini, an old friend from his years in Paris, who hoped that Ingres would improve his position materially, but Ingres, as before, had to rely on his drawings of tourists and diplomats for support. His friendship with Bartolini, whose worldly success in the intervening years stood in sharp contrast to Ingres’s poverty, quickly became strained, and Ingres found new quarters.

In 1821 he finished a painting commissioned by a childhood friend, Monsieur de Pastoret, the Entry of Charles V into Paris; de Pastoret also ordered a portrait of himself and a religious work (Virgin with the Blue Veil). The major undertaking of this period, however, was a commission obtained in August 1820 with the help of de Pastoret, to paint the Vow of Louis XIII for the Cathedral of Montauban. Recognizing this as an opportunity to establish himself as a painter of history, he spent four diligent years bringing the large canvas to completion, and he travelled to Paris with it in October 1824.

The Vow of Louis XIII, exhibited at the Salon of 1824, finally brought Ingres critical success. Conceived in a Raphaelesque style relatively free of the archaisms for which he had been reproached in the past, it was admired even by strict Davidians. Ingres found himself celebrated throughout France; in January 1825 he was awarded the Cross of the Légion d’honneur, and in June 1825 he was elected to the Institute. His fame was extended further in 1826 by the publication of Sudre’s lithograph of La Grande Odalisque, which, having been scorned by artists and critics alike in 1819, now became widely popular.

A commission from the government called forth the monumental Apotheosis of Homer, which Ingres eagerly finished in a year’s time. From 1826 to 1834 the studio of Ingres was thronged, and he was a recognized chef d’école who taught with authority and wisdom while working steadily. The critics came to regard Ingres as the standard-bearer of classicism against the romantic school — a role he relished. The paintings, primarily portraits, that he sent to the Salon in 1827 and 1833 were well received. The portrait of Louis-François Bertin (1832) was a particular success with the public, who found its realism spellbinding, although some of the critics found its naturalism vulgar and its colouring drab.

The thin-skinned artist was outraged, however, by the criticism of his ambitious canvas of the Martyrdom of Saint Symphorien (cathedral ofAutun), shown in the Salon of 1834. Resentful and disgusted, Ingres resolved never again to work for the public, and gladly availed himself of the opportunity to return to Rome, as director of the École de France, in the room of Horace Vernet. There, although the time he spent in administrative duties slowed the flow of paintings from his brush, he executed Antiochus and Stratonice (executed for Louis-Philippe, duc d’Orléans), Portrait of Luigi Cherubini, and the Odalisque with Slave, among other works.

Life and Paintings of Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1780   1867)   Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres The Birth of the Last Muse

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres – The Birth of the Last Muse

One of only two works sent back to Paris during Ingres’ six year term as Director of the French Academy in Rome, the Stratonice was exhibited for several days in mid-August 1840 in the private apartment of the duc d’Orléans in the Pavilion Marsan of the Palais des Tuileries. While lampooned in Le Corsaire for its lofty subject matter yet extremely modest proportions (less than one metre across), overall the work was warmly received; so much so that on his return to Paris in June 1841, Ingres was received with all the deference that he felt was his due, including being received personally by King Louis-Philippe for a tour around Versailles. One of the first works executed after his return was a portrait of the duc d’Orléans, whose death in a carriage accident just weeks after the completion of the portrait sent the nation into mourning and led to orders for additional copies of the portrait.

The following year Ingres, at seventy-one years of age, married forty-three-year-old Delphine Ramel, a relative of his friend Marcotte d’Argenteuil. This marriage proved as happy as his first, and in the decade that followed Ingres completed several significant works. A major undertaking was the Apotheosis of Napoleon I, painted in 1853 for the ceiling of a hall in the Hôtel de Ville, Paris, and destroyed by fire in theCommune of 1871. The portrait of Princesse Albert de Broglie was also completed in 1853, and Joan of Arc appeared in 1854. The latter was largely the work of assistants, whom Ingres often entrusted with the execution of backgrounds. In 1855 Ingres consented to rescind his resolution, more or less strictly kept since 1834, in favour of the International Exhibition, where a room was reserved for his works.

The last of his important portrait paintings date from this period: Marie-Clothilde-Inés de Foucauld, Madame Moitessier, Seated (1856),Self-Portrait at the Age of Seventy-nine and Madame J.-A.-D. Ingres, née Delphine Ramel, both completed in 1859. The Turkish Bath, finished in a rectangular format in 1859, was revised in 1860 before being turned into a tondo. Ingres signed and dated it in 1862, although he made additional revisions in 1863.

Artistic Style

Ingres’s style was formed early in life and changed comparatively little. His earliest drawings, such as the Portrait of a Man (3 July 1797, now in the Louvre) already show a suavity of outline and an extraordinary control of the parallel hatchings which model the forms. From the first, his paintings are characterized by a firmness of outline reflecting his often-quoted conviction that “drawing is the probity of art”.

He believed colour to be no more than an accessory to drawing, explaining: “Drawing is not just reproducing contours, it is not just the line; drawing is also the expression, the inner form, the composition, the modelling. See what is left after that. Drawing is seven eighths of what makes up painting.”

He abhorred the visible brushstroke and made no recourse to the shifting effects of colour and light on which the Romantic school depended; he preferred local colours only faintly modelled in light by half tones. “Ce que l’on sait,” he would repeat, “il faut le savoir l’épée à la main.” (“Whatever you know, you must know it with sword in hand.”) Ingres thus left himself without the means of producing the necessary unity of effect when dealing with crowded compositions, such as the Apotheosis of Homer and the Martyrdom of Saint Symphorien. Among Ingres’s historical and mythological paintings, the most satisfactory are usually those depicting one or two figures. InOedipus, Half-Length Bather, Odalisque, and The Spring, subjects only animated by the consciousness of perfect physical well-being, we find Ingres at his best.

In Roger Freeing Angelica, the female figure shows the finest qualities of Ingres’s work, while the effigy of Roger flying to the rescue on his hippogriff sounds a jarring note, for Ingres was rarely successful in the depiction of movement and drama. As Sanford Schwartz has noted, the “historical, mythological, and religious pictures bespeak huge amounts of energy and industry, but, conveying little palpable sense of inner tension, are costume dramas … The faces in the history pictures are essentially those of models waiting for the session to be over. When an emotion is to be expressed, it comes across stridently, or woodenly.”

Ingres’s choice of subjects reflected his literary tastes, which were severely limited: he read and reread Homer, Virgil, Plutarch, Dante, histories, and the lives of the artists. Throughout his life he revisited a small number of favourite themes, and painted multiple versions of many of his major compositions.He did not share his age’s enthusiasm for battle scenes, and generally preferred to depict “moments of revelation or intimate decision manifested by meeting or confrontation, but never by violence.” His numerous odalisque paintings were influenced to a great extent by the writings of Mary Wortley Montagu, the wife of the ambassador to Turkey whose diaries and letters, when published, fascinated European society.

Although capable of painting quickly, he often laboured for years over a painting. The Spring, although dated 1856, was painted in 1821, except for the head and the extremities; those who knew the work in its incomplete state professed that the after-painting, necessary to fuse new and old, lacked the vigour and precision of touch that distinguished the original execution of the torso. Ingres’s pupil Amaury-Duval wrote of him: “With this facility of execution, one has trouble explaining why Ingres’ oeuvre is not still larger, but he scraped out [his work] frequently, never being satisfied … and perhaps this facility itself made him rework whatever dissatisfied him, certain that he had the power to repair the fault, and quickly, too.”

Ingres died of pneumonia on 17 January 1867, at the age of eighty-six, having preserved his faculties to the last. He is interred in thePère Lachaise Cemetery in Paris with a tomb sculpted by his student Jean-Marie Bonnassieux. The contents of his studio, including a number of major paintings, over 4000 drawings, and his violin, were bequeathed by the artist to the city museum of Montauban, now known as the Musée Ingres.

Life and Paintings of Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1780   1867)   Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres TheTurkish Bath

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres – TheTurkish Bath

 

Life and Paintings of Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1780   1867)   Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres The Apotheosis of Homer

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres – The Apotheosis of Homer

Life and Paintings of Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1780   1867)   Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres Roger Freeing Angelica

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres – Roger Freeing Angelica

Life and Paintings of Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1780   1867)   Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres Paolo and Francesca

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres – Paolo and Francesca

Life and Paintings of Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1780   1867)   Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres Oedipus and the Sphynx

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres – Oedipus and the Sphynx

Life and Paintings of Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1780   1867)   Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres Napoleon I on the Imperial Throne

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres – Napoleon I on the Imperial Throne

Life and Paintings of Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1780   1867)   Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres Monsieur Riviere

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres – Monsieur Riviere

Life and Paintings of Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1780   1867)   Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres Madame Moitessier

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres – Madame Moitessier

Life and Paintings of Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1780   1867)   Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres The Vow of Louis XIII

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres – The Vow of Louis XIII

Life and Paintings of Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1780   1867)   Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres The Source

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres – The Source

Life and Paintings of Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1780   1867)   Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres The Entry of the Future Charles V into Paris in 1358

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres – The Entry of the Future Charles V into Paris in 1358

Life and Paintings of Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1780   1867)   Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres The Dream of Ossian

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres – The Dream of Ossian

 

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Jean-Baptiste-Camille-Corot---Morning-at-Beauvais

Life and Paintings of Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot (1796 – 1875)

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot (July 16, 1796 – February 22, 1875) was a French landscape painter and printmaker in etching. Corot was the leading painter of the Barbizon school of France in the mid-nineteenth century. He is a pivotal figure in landscape painting and his vast output simultaneously references the Neo-Classical tradition and anticipates the plein-air innovations of Impressionism.

Movements: Naturalism, Classicism

Camille Corot was born in Paris in 1796, in a house at 125 Rue du Bac, now demolished. His family were bourgeois people—his father was a wigmaker and his mother a milliner—and unlike the experience of some of his artistic colleagues, throughout his life he never felt the want of money, as his parents made good investments and ran their businesses well.

Life and Paintings of Jean Baptiste Camille Corot (1796   1875)   Jean Baptiste Camille Corot Self Portrait

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot – Self-Portrait

After his parents married, they bought the millinery shop where his mother had worked and his father gave up his career as a wigmaker to run the business side of the shop. The store was a famous destination for fashionable Parisians and earned the family an excellent income. Corot was the second of three children born to the family, who lived above their shop during those years.
Corot received a scholarship to study at the Lycée Pierre-Corneille in Rouen, but left after having scholastic difficulties and entered a boarding school. He “was not a brilliant student, and throughout his entire school career he did not get a single nomination for a prize, not even for the drawing classes.”

Unlike many masters who demonstrated early talent and inclinations toward art, before 1815 Corot showed no such interest. During those years he lived with the Sennegon family, whose patriarch was a friend of Corot’s father and who spent much time with young Corot on nature walks. It was in this region that Corot made his first paintings after nature. At nineteen, Corot was a “big child, shy and awkward. He blushed when spoken to. Before the beautiful ladies who frequented his mother’s salon, he was embarrassed and fled like a wild thing… Emotionally, he was an affectionate and well-behaved son, who adored his mother and trembled when his father spoke.” When Corot’s parents moved into a new residence in 1817, the 21-year-old Corot moved into the dormer-windowed room on the third floor, which became his first studio as well.

With his father’s help he apprenticed to a draper, but he hated commercial life and despised what he called “business tricks”, yet he faithfully remained in the trade until he was 26, when his father consented to his adopting the profession of art. Later Corot stated, “I told my father that business and I were simply incompatible, and that I was getting a divorce.” The business experience proved beneficial, however, by helping him develop an aesthetic sense through his exposure to the colors and textures of the fabrics. Perhaps out of boredom, he turned to oil painting around 1821 and began immediately with landscapes.

Starting in 1822 after the death of his sister, Corot began receiving a yearly allowance of 1500 francs which adequately financed his new career, studio, materials, and travel for the rest of his life. He immediately rented a studio on quai Voltaire.
During the period when Corot acquired the means to devote himself to art, landscape painting was on the upswing and generally divided into two camps: one―historical landscape by Neoclassicists in Southern Europe representing idealized views of real and fancied sites peopled with ancient, mythological, and biblical figures; and two―realistic landscape, more common in Northern Europe, which was largely faithful to actual topography, architecture, and flora, and which often showed figures of peasants. In both approaches, landscape artists would typically begin with outdoor sketching and preliminary painting, with finishing work done indoors.

Highly influential upon French landscape artists in the early 19th century was the work of Englishmen John Constable and J.M.W. Turner, who reinforced the trend in favor of Realism and away from Neoclassicism.

For a short period between 1821–1822, Corot studied with Achille-Etna Michallon, a landscape painter of Corot’s age who was a protégé of the painter David and who was already a well-respected teacher. Michallon had a great influence on Corot’s career. Corot’s drawing lessons included tracing lithographs, copying three-dimensional forms, and making landscape sketches and paintings outdoors, especially in the forests of Fontainebleau, the seaports along Normandy, and the villages west of Paris such as Ville-d’Avray (where his parents had a country house).

Michallon also exposed him to the principles of the French Neoclassic tradition, as espoused in the famous treatise of theorist Pierre-Henri de Valenciennes, and exemplified in the works of French Neoclassicists Claude Lorrain and Nicolas Poussin, whose major aim was the representation of ideal Beauty in nature, linked with events in ancient times.

Though this school was on the decline, it still held sway in the Salon, the foremost art exhibition in France attended by thousands at each event. Corot later stated, “I made my first landscape from nature…under the eye of this painter, whose only advice was to render with the greatest scrupulousness everything I saw before me. The lesson worked; since then I have always treasured precision.”

Life and Paintings of Jean Baptiste Camille Corot (1796   1875)   Jean Baptiste Camille Corot Poetry

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot – Poetry

After Michallon’s early death in 1822, Corot studied with Michallon’s teacher, Jean-Victor Bertin, among the best known Neoclassic landscape painters in France, who had Corot draw copies of lithographs of botanical subjects to learn precise organic forms. Though holding Neoclassicists in the highest regard, Corot did not limit his training to their tradition of allegory set in imagined nature. His notebooks reveal precise renderings of tree trunks, rocks, and plants which show the influence of Northern realism. Throughout his career, Corot demonstrated an inclination to apply both traditions in his work, sometimes combining the two.

With his parents’ support, Corot followed the well-established pattern of French painters who went to Italy to study the masters of the Italian Renaissance and to draw the crumbling monuments of Roman antiquity. A condition by his parents before leaving was that he paint a self-portrait for them, his first. Corot’s stay in Italy from 1825 to 1828 was a highly formative and productive one, during which he completed over 200 drawings and 150 paintings.

He worked and traveled with several young French painters also studying abroad who painted together and socialized at night in the cafes, critiquing each other and gossiping. Corot learned little from the Renaissance masters (though later he cited Leonardo da Vinci as his favorite painter) and spent most of his time around Rome and in the Italian countryside.

The Farnese Gardens with its splendid views of the ancient ruins was a frequent destination, and he painted it at three different times of the day. The training was particularly valuable in gaining an understanding of the challenges of both the mid-range and panoramic perspective, and in effectively placing man-made structures in a natural setting.  He also learned how to give buildings and rocks the effect of volume and solidity with proper light and shadow, while using a smooth and thin technique. Furthermore, placing suitable figures in a secular setting was a necessity of good landscape painting, to add human context and scale, and it was even more important in allegorical landscapes. To that end Corot worked on figure studies in native costume as well as nude.

During winter, he spent time in a studio but returned to work outside as quickly as weather permitted. The intense light of Italy posed considerable challenges, “This sun gives off a light that makes me despair. It makes me feel the utter powerlessness of my palette.” He learned to master the light and to paint the stones and sky in subtle and dramatic variation.

It was not only Italian architecture and light which captured Corot’s attention. The late-blooming Corot was entranced with Italian females as well, “They still have the most beautiful women in the world that I have met….their eyes, their shoulders, their hands are spectacular. In that, they surpass our women, but on the other hand, they are not their equals in grace and kindness…Myself, as a painter I prefer the Italian woman, but I lean toward the French woman when it comes to emotion.”

In spite of his strong attraction to women, he writes of his commitment to painting, “I have only one goal in life that I want to pursue faithfully: to make landscapes. This firm resolution keeps me from a serious attachment. That is to say, in marriage…but my independent nature and my great need for serious study make me take the matter lightly.”

During the six-year period following his first Italian visit and his second, Corot focused on preparing large landscapes for presentation at the Salon. Several of his salon paintings were adaptations of his Italian oil sketches reworked in the studio by adding imagined, formal elements consistent with Neoclassical principles.  An example of this was his first Salon entry, View at Narni (1827), where he took his quick, natural study of a ruin of a Roman aqueduct in dusty bright sun and transformed it into a falsely idyllic pastoral setting with giant shade trees and green lawns, a conversion meant to appeal to the Neoclassical jurors.

Many critics have valued highly his plein-air Italian paintings for their “germ of Impressionism“, their faithfulness to natural light, and their avoidance of academic values, even though they were intended as studies.  Several decades later, Impressionism revolutionized art by a taking a similar approach—quick, spontaneous painting done in the out-of-doors; however, where the Impressionists used rapidly applied, un-mixed colors to capture light and mood, Corot usually mixed and blended his colors to get his dreamy effects.

 

Life and Paintings of Jean Baptiste Camille Corot (1796   1875)   Jean Baptiste Camille Corot The Reader Wreathed with Flowers Virgils Muse

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot – The Reader Wreathed with Flowers (Virgil’s Muse)

Life and Paintings of Jean Baptiste Camille Corot (1796   1875)   Jean Baptiste Camille Corot The Coliseum Seen from the Farnese Gardens

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot – The Coliseum Seen from the Farnese Gardens

Life and Paintings of Jean Baptiste Camille Corot (1796   1875)   Jean Baptiste Camille Corot The Cathedral of Chartres

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot – The Cathedral of Chartres

Life and Paintings of Jean Baptiste Camille Corot (1796   1875)   Jean Baptiste Camille Corot The bridge of Narni

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot – The bridge of Narni

Life and Paintings of Jean Baptiste Camille Corot (1796   1875)   Jean Baptiste Camille Corot The Artists Studio

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot – The Artist’s Studio

Life and Paintings of Jean Baptiste Camille Corot (1796   1875)   Jean Baptiste Camille Corot St Sebastian Succoured by Holy Women

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot – St Sebastian Succoured by Holy Women

Life and Paintings of Jean Baptiste Camille Corot (1796   1875)   Jean Baptiste Camille Corot Agostina

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot – Agostina

Life and Paintings of Jean Baptiste Camille Corot (1796   1875)   Jean Baptiste Camille Corot Young Woman in Pink Dress

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot – Young Woman in Pink Dress

Life and Paintings of Jean Baptiste Camille Corot (1796   1875)   Jean Baptiste Camille Corot Young Woman Madame Legois

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot – Young Woman (Madame Legois)

Life and Paintings of Jean Baptiste Camille Corot (1796   1875)   Jean Baptiste Camille Corot Volterra the Citadel

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot – Volterra, the Citadel

Life and Paintings of Jean Baptiste Camille Corot (1796   1875)   Jean Baptiste Camille Corot Ville dAvray

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot – Ville d’Avray

Life and Paintings of Jean Baptiste Camille Corot (1796   1875)   Jean Baptiste Camille Corot The Woman with the Pearl

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot – The Woman with the Pearl

Life and Paintings of Jean Baptiste Camille Corot (1796   1875)   Jean Baptiste Camille Corot The Tanneries of Mantes

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot – The Tanneries of Mantes

Life and Paintings of Jean Baptiste Camille Corot (1796   1875)   Jean Baptiste Camille Corot The Solitude. Recollection of Vigen Limousin

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot – The Solitude. Recollection of Vigen, Limousin

Corot was the leading painter of the Barbizon school of France in the mid-nineteenth century. He is a pivotal figure in landscape painting. His work simultaneously references the Neo-Classical tradition and anticipates the plein-air innovations of Impressionism. Of him Claude Monet exclaimed “There is only one master here—Corot. We are nothing compared to him, nothing.” His contributions to figure painting are hardly less important;Degas preferred his figures to his landscapes, and the classical figures of Picasso pay overt homage to Corot’s influence.

When out of the studio, Corot traveled throughout France, mirroring his Italian methods, and concentrated on rustic landscapes. He returned to the Normandy coast and to Rouen, the city he lived in as a youth.  Corot also did some portraits of friends and relatives, and received his first commissions. His sensitive portrait of his niece, Laure Sennegon, dressed in powder blue, was one of his most successful and was later donated to the Louvre.  He typically painted two copies of each family portrait, one for the subject and one for the family, and often made copies of his landscapes as well. Corot exhibited one portrait and several landscapes at the Salon in 1831 and 1833. His reception by the critics at the Salon was cold and Corot decided to return to Italy, having failed to satisfy them with his Neoclassical themes.

During his two return trips to Italy, he visited Northern Italy, Venice, and again the Roman countryside. In 1835, Corot created a sensation at the Salon with his biblical painting Agar dans le desert (Hagar in the Wilderness), which depicted Hagar, Sarah’s handmaiden, and the child Ishmael, dying of thirst in the desert until saved by an angel. The background was likely derived from an Italian study.

Life and Paintings of Jean Baptiste Camille Corot (1796   1875)   Jean Baptiste Camille Corot Peasants under the Trees at Dawn

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot – Peasants under the Trees at Dawn

This time, Corot’s unanticipated bold, fresh statement of the Neoclassical ideal succeeded with the critics by demonstrating “the harmony between the setting and the passion or suffering that the painter chooses to depict in it.”
He followed that up with other biblical and mythological subjects, but those paintings did not succeed as well, as the Salon critics found him wanting in comparisons with Poussin.In 1837, he painted his earliest surviving nude, The Nymph of the Seine. Later, he advised his students “The study of the nude, you see, is the best lesson that a landscape painter can have. If someone knows how, without any tricks, to get down a figure, he is able to make a landscape; otherwise he can never do it.”

In the 1860s, Corot was still mixing peasant figures with mythological ones, mixing Neoclassicism with Realism, causing one critic to lament, “If M. Corot would kill, once and for all, the nymphs of his woods and replace them with peasants, I should like him beyond measure.” In reality, in later life his human figures did increase and the nymphs did decrease, but even the human figures were often set in idyllic reveries.

In later life, Corot’s studio was filled with students, models, friends, collectors, and dealers who came and went under the tolerant eye of the master, causing him to quip, “Why is it that there are ten of you around me, and not one of you thinks to relight my pipe.”

Dealers snapped up his works and his prices were often above 4,000 francs per painting.With his success secured, Corot gave generously of his money and time. He became an elder of the artists’ community and would use his influence to gain commissions for other artists. In 1871 he gave £2000 for the poor of Paris, under siege by the Prussians. During the actual Paris Commune, he was at Arras with Alfred Robaut. In 1872 he bought a house in Auvers as a gift for Honoré Daumier, who by then was blind, without resources, and homeless. In 1875 he donated 10.000 francs to the widow of Millet in support of her children. His charity was near proverbial. He also financially supported the upkeep of a day center for children on rue Vandrezanne in Paris. In later life, he remained a humble and modest man, apolitical and happy with his luck in life, and held close the belief that, “men should not puff themselves up with pride, whether they are emperors adding this or that province to their empires or painter who gain a reputation.”

Life and Paintings of Jean Baptiste Camille Corot (1796   1875)   Jean Baptiste Camille Corot Morning at Beauvais

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot – Morning at Beauvais

Despite great success and appreciation among artists, collectors, and the more generous critics, his many friends considered, nevertheless, that he was officially neglected, and in 1874, a short time before his death, they presented him with a gold medal.He died in Paris of a stomach disorder aged 78 and was buried at Père Lachaise Cemetery.

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Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore (Titian) - Perseus and Andromeda

Life and Paintings of Titian (1488 – 1576)

Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (c. 1488/1490 – 27 August 1576)  known in English as Titian, was an Italian painter, the most important member of the 16th-century Venetian school. He was born in Pieve di Cadore, near Belluno (in Veneto), in the Republic of Venice. During his lifetime he was often called da Cadore, taken from the place of his birth.

Movements: Renaissance, Naturalism, Classicism, Secularism

[Please note that Titian's paintings contain nudity, if that offends you don't read the article.]

Recognized by his contemporaries as “The Sun Amidst Small Stars” (recalling the famous final line of Dante’s Paradiso), Titian was one of the most versatile of Italian painters, equally adept with portraits, landscape backgrounds, and mythological and religious subjects. His painting methods, particularly in the application and use of color, would exercise a profound influence not only on painters of the Italian Renaissance, but on future generations of Western art.

Life and Paintings of Titian (1488   1576)   Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore Titian Allegory of Time Governed by Prudence

Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore (Titian) – Allegory of Time Governed by Prudence

During the course of his long life, Titian’s artistic manner changed drastically but he retained a lifelong interest in color. Although his mature works may not contain the vivid, luminous tints of his early pieces, their loose brushwork and subtlety of polychromatic modulations are without precedent in the history of Western art.

The exact date of Titian’s birth is uncertain; when he was an old man he claimed in a letter to Philip II to have been born in 1474, but this seems most unlikely. Other writers contemporary to his old age give figures which would equate to birthdates between 1473 to after 1482, but most modern scholars believe a date nearer 1490 is more likely; the Metropolitan Museum of Art’s timeline supports c.1488, as does the Getty Research Institute.

He was the eldest son of Gregorio Vecelli and his wife Lucia. His father was superintendent of the castle of Pieve di Cadore and managed local mines for their owners. Gregorio was also a distinguished councilor and soldier. Many relatives, including Titian’s grandfather, were notaries, and the family of four were well-established in the area, which was ruled by Venice.

Life and Paintings of Titian (1488   1576)   Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore Titian The Venus of Urbino 1024x712

Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore (Titian) – The Venus of Urbino

A fresco of Hercules on the Morosini Palace is said to have been one of Titian’s earliest works; others were the Bellini-esque so-called Gypsy Madonna in Vienna, and the Visitation of Mary and Elizabeth (from the convent of S. Andrea), now in the Accademia, Venice.

Titian joined Giorgione as an assistant, but many contemporary critics already found his work more impressive, for example in the exterior frescoes (now almost totally destroyed) that they did for the Fondaco dei Tedeschi (state-warehouse for the German merchants), and their relationship evidently had a significant element of rivalry. Distinguishing between their work at this period remains a subject of scholarly controversy, and there has been a substantial movement of attributions from Giorgione to Titian in the 20th century, with little traffic the other way. One of the earliest known works of Titian, Christ Carrying the Cross in the Scuola Grande di San Rocco, depicting the Ecce Homo scene, was long regarded as the work of Giorgione.

It took Titian two years (1516–1518) to complete his Assunta, whose dynamic three-tier composition and color scheme established him as the preeminent painter north of Rome.

During this period (1516–1530), which may be called the period of his mastery and maturity, the artist moved on from his early Giorgionesque style, undertook larger and more complex subjects and for the first time attempted a monumental style.

Giorgione died in 1510 and Giovanni Bellini in 1516, leaving Titian unrivaled in the Venetian School. For sixty years he was to be the undisputed master of Venetian painting. In 1516 he completed for the high altar of the church of the Frari, his famous masterpiece, the Assumption of the Virgin, still in situ. This extraordinary piece of colorism, executed on a grand scale rarely before seen in Italy, created a sensation.

The Signoria took note, and observed that Titian was neglecting his work in the hall of the great council, but in 1516 he succeeded his master Giovanni Bellini in receiving a pension from the Senate.

To this period belongs a more extraordinary work, The Death of St. Peter Martyr (1530), formerly in the Dominican Church of San Zanipolo, and destroyed by an Austrian shell in 1867. Only copies and engravings of this proto-Baroque picture remain; it combined extreme violence and a landscape, mostly consisting of a great tree, that pressed into the scene and seems to accentuate the drama in a way that looks forward to the Baroque.
During the next period (1530–1550), Titian developed the style introduced by his dramatic Death of St. Peter Martyr. The Venetian government, dissatisfied with Titian’s neglect of the work for the ducal palace, ordered him in 1538 to refund the money which he had received, and Pordenone, his rival of recent years, was installed in his place. However, at the end of a year Pordenone died, and Titian, who meanwhile applied himself diligently to painting in the hall the Battle of Cadore, was reinstated.

This major battle scene was lost along with so many other major works by Venetian artists by the great fire which destroyed all the old pictures in the great chambers of the Doge’s Palace in 1577. It represented in life-size the moment at which the Venetian general, D’Alviano attacked the enemy with horses and men crashing down into a stream, and was the artist’s most important attempt at a tumultuous and heroic scene of movement to rival Raphael’s Battle of Constantine and the equally ill-fated Battle of Cascina of Michelangelo and The Battle of Anghiari of Leonardo (both unfinished). There remains only a poor, incomplete copy at the Uffizi, and a mediocre engraving by Fontana.

Life and Paintings of Titian (1488   1576)   Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore Titian The Death of Actaeon

Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore (Titian) – The Death of Actaeon

Titian had from the beginning of his career shown himself to be a masterful portrait-painter, in works like La Bella (Eleanora de Gonzaga, Duchess of Urbino, at the Pitti Palace). He painted the likenesses of princes, or Doges, cardinals or monks, and artists or writers. “…no other painter was so successful in extracting from each physiognomy so many traits at once characteristic and beautiful”, according to The Catholic Encyclopedia. Among portrait-painters Titian is compared to Rembrandt and Velázquez, with the interior life of the former, and the clearness, certainty, and obviousness of the latter.

Let’s now enjoy some of his most celebrated works:

 

Life and Paintings of Titian (1488   1576)   Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore Titian Adam and Eve 786x1024

Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore (Titian) – Adam and Eve

Life and Paintings of Titian (1488   1576)   Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore Titian Portrait of Gerolamo Barbarigo

Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore (Titian) – Portrait of Gerolamo Barbarigo

Life and Paintings of Titian (1488   1576)   Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore Titian Sacred and Profane Love 1024x351

Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore (Titian) -Sacred and Profane Love

Life and Paintings of Titian (1488   1576)   Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore Titian Venus with a Mirror 859x1024

Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore (Titian) – Venus with a Mirror

Life and Paintings of Titian (1488   1576)   Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore Titian Venus and Cupid with an Organist 1024x538

Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore (Titian) – Venus and Cupid with an Organist

Life and Paintings of Titian (1488   1576)   Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore Titian Venus Anadyomene 761x1024

Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore (Titian) – Venus Anadyomene

Life and Paintings of Titian (1488   1576)   Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore Titian Tityus 896x1024

Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore (Titian) – Tityus

Life and Paintings of Titian (1488   1576)   Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore Titian The Worship of Venus 1024x1003

Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore (Titian) – The Worship of Venus

Life and Paintings of Titian (1488   1576)   Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore Titian The Three Ages of Man 1024x608

Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore (Titian) – The Three Ages of Man

Life and Paintings of Titian (1488   1576)   Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore Titian The Rape of Europa 1024x896

Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore (Titian) – The Rape of Europa

Life and Paintings of Titian (1488   1576)   Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore Titian The Birth of Adonis 1024x214

Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore (Titian) – The Birth of Adonis

Life and Paintings of Titian (1488   1576)   Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore Titian Spain Succouring Religion

Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore (Titian) – Spain Succouring Religion

Life and Paintings of Titian (1488   1576)   Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore Titian Philip II Offering Don Fernando to Victory 844x1024

Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore (Titian) – Philip II Offering Don Fernando to Victory

Life and Paintings of Titian (1488   1576)   Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore Titian Perseus and Andromeda 1024x921

Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore (Titian) – Perseus and Andromeda

Life and Paintings of Titian (1488   1576)   Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore Titian Orpheus and Eurydice 1024x731

Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore (Titian) – Orpheus and Eurydice

Life and Paintings of Titian (1488   1576)   Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore Titian Mocking of Christ 896x1024

Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore (Titian) – Mocking of Christ

Life and Paintings of Titian (1488   1576)   Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore Titian Diana and Callisto 1024x947

Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore (Titian) – Diana and Callisto

Life and Paintings of Titian (1488   1576)   Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore Titian Danae 1024x724

Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore (Titian) – Danae

Life and Paintings of Titian (1488   1576)   Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore Titian Bacchanal of the Andrians 1024x895

Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore (Titian) – Bacchanal of the Andrians

Titian’s unmatched handling of color is exemplified by his Danaë with Nursemaid, one of several mythological paintings, or “poesie” (“poems”) as the painter called them, done for Philip II of Spain. Although Michelangelo adjudged this piece deficient from the point of view of drawing, Titian and his studio produced several versions for other patrons.

Titian was probably in his late eighties when the plague raging in Venice took him on 27 August 1576. He was the only victim of the Venice plague to be given a church burial. He was interred in the Frari (Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari), as at first intended, and his Pietà was finished by Palma the Younger. He lies near his own famous painting, the Madonna di Ca’ Pesaro. No memorial marked his grave, until much later the Austrian rulers of Venice commissioned Canova to provide the large monument.

Immediately after Titian’s own death, his son and assistant Orazio died of the same epidemic. His sumptuous mansion was plundered during the plague by thieves.

 

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This Articles’ text is licensed under the Creative Commons BY-SA License since it partially uses material from Wikipedia.

 

John Everett Millais - The Ruling Passion (1885) Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum

Life and Paintings of John Everett Millais (1829 – 1896)

Sir John Everett Millais, 1st Baronet, ( 8 June 1829 – 13 August 1896) was an English painter and illustrator and one of the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. Millais was born in Southampton, England in 1829, of a prominent Jersey-based family.

Movements: Medievalism, Naturalism, Academicism, Pre-Raphaelitism

The author Thackeray once asked him “when England conquered Jersey.” Millais replied “Never! Jersey conquered England.” (cited in Chums annual, 1896, page 213). His prodigious artistic talent won him a place at the Royal Academy schools at the unprecedented age of eleven. While there, he met William Holman Hunt and Dante Gabriel Rossetti with whom he formed the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (known as the “PRB”) in September 1848 in his family home on Gower Street, off Bedford Square.

Jean-François Millet - Farmer Inserting a Graft on a Tree

Masters of Art: Jean-François Millet (1814 – 1875)

Jean-François Millet (October 4, 1814 – January 20, 1875) was a French painter and one of the founders of the Barbizon school in rural France. Millet is noted for his scenes of peasant farmers; he can be categorized as part of the naturalism and realism movements.

Movements: Realism

Millet was the first child of Jean-Louis-Nicolas and Aimée-Henriette-Adélaïde Henry Millet, members of the peasant community in the village of Gruchy, in Gréville-Hague (Normandy).Under the guidance of two village priests, Millet acquired a knowledge of Latin and modern authors, before being sent to Cherbourg in 1833 to study with a portrait painter named Paul Dumouchel. By 1835 he was studying full-time with Lucien-Théophile Langlois, a pupil of Baron Gros, in Cherbourg. A stipend provided by Langlois and others enabled Millet to move to Paris in 1837, where he studied at the École des Beaux-Arts with Paul Delaroche. In 1839 his scholarship was terminated, and his first submission to the Salon was rejected.

Masters of Art: Jean François Millet (1814   1875)   Jean François Millet The Gleaners 1024x771

Jean-François Millet – The Gleaners

After his first painting, a portrait, was accepted at the Salon of 1840, Millet returned to Cherbourg to begin a career as a portrait painter. However, the following year he married Pauline-Virginie Ono, and they moved to Paris. After rejections at the Salon of 1843 and Pauline’s death by consumption, Millet returned again to Cherbourg. In 1845 Millet moved to Le Havre with Catherine Lemaire, whom he would marry in a civil ceremony in 1853; they would have nine children, and remain together for the rest of Millet’s life. In Le Havre he painted portraits and small genre pieces for several months, before moving back to Paris.

It was in Paris in the middle 1840s that Millet befriended Constant Troyon, Narcisse Diaz, Charles Jacque, and Théodore Rousseau, artists who, like Millet, would become associated with the Barbizon school; Honoré Daumier, whose figure draftsmanship would influence Millet’s subsequent rendering of peasant subjects; andAlfred Sensier, a government bureaucrat who would become a lifelong supporter and eventually the artist’s biographer. In 1847 his first Salon success came with the exhibition of a painting Oedipus Taken down from the Tree, and in 1848 his Winnower was bought by the government.

Masters of Art: Jean François Millet (1814   1875)   Jean François Millet Peasant with a Wheelbarrow 1024x844

Jean-François Millet – Peasant with a Wheelbarrow

The Captivity of the Jews in Babylon, Millet’s most ambitious work at the time, was unveiled at the Salon of 1848, but was scorned by art critics and the public alike. The painting eventually disappeared shortly thereafter, leading historians to believe that Millet destroyed it. In 1984, scientists at the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston x-rayed Millet’s 1870 painting The Young Sherpherdess looking for minor changes, and discovered that it was painted over Captivity. It is now believed that Millet reused the canvas when materials were in short supply during the Franco-Prussian War.

Despite mixed reviews of the paintings he exhibited at the Salon, Millet’s reputation and success grew through the 1860s. At the beginning of the decade, he contracted to paint 25 works in return for a monthly stipend for the next three years and in 1865, another patron, Emile Gavet, began commissioning pastels for a collection that would eventually include 90 works. In 1867, the Exposition Universelle hosted a major showing of his work, with the Gleaners, Angelus, and Potato Planters among the paintings exhibited. The following year, Frédéric Hartmann commissioned Four Seasons for 25,000 francs, and Millet was named Chevalier de la Légion d’Honneur.

In 1870, Millet was elected to the Salon jury. Later that year, he and his family fled the Franco-Prussian War, moving to Cherbourg and Gréville, and did not return to Barbizon until late in 1871. His last years were marked by financial success and increased official recognition, but he was unable to fulfill government commissions due to failing health. On January 3, 1875, he married Catherine in a religious ceremony. Millet died on January 20, 1875.

Millet was an important source of inspiration for Vincent van Gogh, particularly during his early period. Millet and his work are mentioned many times in Vincent’s letters to his brother Theo. Millet’s late landscapes would serve as influential points of reference to Claude Monet’s paintings of the coast of Normandy; his structural and symbolic content influenced Georges Seurat as well.

Masters of Art: Jean François Millet (1814   1875)   Jean François Millet Farmer Inserting a Graft on a Tree 1024x824

Jean-François Millet – Farmer Inserting a Graft on a Tree

Millet is the main protagonist of Mark Twain’s play Is He Dead? (1898), in which he is depicted as a struggling young artist who fakes his death to score fame and fortune. Most of the details about Millet in the play are fictional.

Millet’s painting L’homme à la houe inspired the famous poem “The Man With the Hoe” (1898) by Edwin Markham.

The Angelus was reproduced frequently in the 19th and 20th centuries. Salvador Dalí was fascinated by this work, and wrote an analysis of it, The Tragic Myth of The Angelus of Millet. Rather than seeing it as a work of spiritual peace, Dalí believed it held messages of repressed sexual aggression. Dalí was also of the opinion that the two figures were praying over their buried child, rather than to the Angelus. Dalí was so insistent on this fact that eventually an X-ray was done of the canvas, confirming his suspicions: the painting contains a painted-over geometric shape strikingly similar to a coffin. However, it is unclear whether Millet changed his mind on the meaning of the painting, or even if the shape actually is a coffin.

 

Masters of Art: Jean François Millet (1814   1875)   Jean François Millet Young Shepherdess 718x1024

Jean-François Millet – Young Shepherdess

Masters of Art: Jean François Millet (1814   1875)   Jean François Millet Trussing Hay 1024x845

Jean-François Millet – Trussing Hay

Masters of Art: Jean François Millet (1814   1875)   Jean François Millet The Winnower

Jean-François Millet – The Winnower

Masters of Art: Jean François Millet (1814   1875)   Jean François Millet The Angelus

Jean-François Millet – The Angelus

Masters of Art: Jean François Millet (1814   1875)   Jean François Millet Spring 1024x798

Jean-François Millet – Spring

Masters of Art: Jean François Millet (1814   1875)   Jean François Millet Peasant Girls with Brushwood

Jean-François Millet – Peasant-Girls with Brushwood

Masters of Art: Jean François Millet (1814   1875)   Jean François Millet Hunting Birds at Night 1024x862

Jean-François Millet – Hunting Birds at Night

 

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Articles’ Images are in the public domain because their copyright has expired or are displayed here under the “ fair use” copyright law, and are available through WikipediaWikimedia.

This Articles’ text is licensed under the Creative Commons BY-SA License since it partially uses material from Wikipedia.

Thomas Gainsborough - Conversation in a Park

Masters of Art: Thomas Gainsborough (1727 – 1788)

Thomas Gainsborough (christened 14 May 1727 – 2 August 1788) was an English portrait and landscape painter.

Movements: Academicism, Naturalism

Thomas Gainsborough was born in Sudbury, Suffolk, the youngest son of John Gainsborough, a weaver and maker of woolen goods, and the sister of the Reverend Humphry Burroughs. At the age of thirteen he impressed his father with his penciling skills so that he let him go to London to study art in 1740. In London he first trained under engraver Hubert Gravelot but eventually became associated with William Hogarth and his school. He assisted Francis Hayman in the decoration of the supper boxes at Vauxhall Gardens, and contributed to the decoration of what is now the Thomas Coram Foundation for Children.

In 1746, Gainsborough married Margaret Burr, an illegitimate daughter of the Duke of Beaufort, who settled a £200 annuity on the couple. The artist’s work, then mainly composed of landscape paintings, was not selling very well. He returned to Sudbury in 1748–1749 and concentrated on the painting of portraits.

Masters of Art: Thomas Gainsborough (1727   1788)    Thomas Gainsborough Johann Christian Bach

Thomas Gainsborough – Johann Christian Bach

In 1752, he and his family, now including two daughters, moved to Ipswich. Commissions for personal portraits increased, but his clientele included mainly local merchants and squires. He had to borrow against his wife’s annuity.

In 1759, Gainsborough and his family moved to Bath, living at number 17 The Circus.  There, he studied portraits by van Dyck and was eventually able to attract a fashionable clientele. In 1761, he began to send work to the Society of Arts exhibition in London (now the Royal Society of Arts, of which he was one of the earliest members); and from 1769 on, he submitted works to the Royal Academy’s annual exhibitions. He selected portraits of well-known or notorious clients in order to attract attention. These exhibitions helped him acquire a national reputation, and he was invited to become one of the founding members of the Royal Academy in 1769. His relationship with the academy, however, was not an easy one and he stopped exhibiting his paintings there in 1773.

Masters of Art: Thomas Gainsborough (1727   1788)    Thomas Gainsborough The Artists Wife

Thomas Gainsborough – The Artist’s Wife

In 1774, Gainsborough and his family moved to London to live in Schomberg House, Pall Mall. In 1777, he again began to exhibit his paintings at the Royal Academy, including portraits of contemporary celebrities, such as the Duke and Duchess of Cumberland. Exhibitions of his work continued for the next six years.

In 1780, he painted the portraits of King George III and his queen and afterwards received many royal commissions. This gave him some influence with the Academy and allowed him to dictate the manner in which he wished his work to be exhibited. However, in 1783, he removed his paintings from the forthcoming exhibition and transferred them to Schomberg House.

In 1784, royal painter Allan Ramsay died and the King was obliged to give the job to Gainsborough’s rival and Academy president, Joshua Reynolds. Gainsborough remained the Royal Family’s favourite painter, however. At his own express wish, he was buried at St. Anne’s Church, Kew, where the Family regularly worshipped.

In his later years, Gainsborough often painted relatively simple, ordinary landscapes. With Richard Wilson, he was one of the originators of the eighteenth-century British landscape school; though simultaneously, in conjunction with Sir Joshua Reynolds, he was the dominant British portraitist of the second half of the 18th century.

He died of cancer on 2 August 1788 at the age of 61 and is interred at St. Anne’s Church, Kew, Surrey (located on Kew Green). He is buried next to Francis Bauer, the famous botanical illustrator. As of 2011, an appeal is underway to pay the costs of restoration of his tomb.

Masters of Art: Thomas Gainsborough (1727   1788)    Thomas Gainsborough Mr and Mrs Andrews

Thomas Gainsborough – Mr and Mrs Andrews

Gainsborough was noted for the speed with which he applied his paint, and he worked more from his observations of nature (and of human nature) than from any application of formal academic rules. The poetic sensibility of his paintings caused Constable to say, “On looking at them, we find tears in our eyes and know not what brings them.”

He himself said, “I’m sick of portraits, and wish very much to take my viol-da-gam and walk off to some sweet village, where I can paint landskips (sic) and enjoy the fag end of life in quietness and ease.

This likeness of landscapes is shown in the way he merged the figures of the portraits with the scenes behind them. His later work was characterised by a light palette and easy, economical strokes.

Masters of Art: Thomas Gainsborough (1727   1788)    Thomas Gainsborough The Artists Daughters with a Cat

Thomas Gainsborough – The Artist’s Daughters with a Cat

His most famous works, such as Portrait of Mrs. Graham; Mary and Margaret: The Painter’s Daughters; William Hallett and His Wife Elizabeth, nee Stephen, known as The Morning Walk; and Cottage Girl with Dog and Pitcher, display the unique individuality of his subjects.

Gainsborough’s only known assistant was his nephew, Gainsborough Dupont. In the last year of his life he collaborated with John Hoppner in painting a full length portrait of Charlotte, Countess Talbot.

Masters of Art: Thomas Gainsborough (1727   1788)    Thomas Gainsborough Mary Countess of Howe

Thomas Gainsborough – Mary, Countess of Howe

Masters of Art: Thomas Gainsborough (1727   1788)    Thomas Gainsborough Isaac Henrique Sequeira

Thomas Gainsborough – Isaac Henrique Sequeira

Masters of Art: Thomas Gainsborough (1727   1788)    Thomas Gainsborough Conversation in a Park

Thomas Gainsborough – Conversation in a Park

Masters of Art: Thomas Gainsborough (1727   1788)    Thomas Gainsborough The Marsham Children

Thomas Gainsborough – The Marsham Children

Masters of Art: Thomas Gainsborough (1727   1788)    Thomas Gainsborough Self Portrait

Thomas Gainsborough – Self-Portrait

Masters of Art: Thomas Gainsborough (1727   1788)    Thomas Gainsborough Portrait of Sarah Buxton

Thomas Gainsborough – Portrait of Sarah Buxton

Masters of Art: Thomas Gainsborough (1727   1788)    Thomas Gainsborough Portrait of a Lady in Blue

Thomas Gainsborough – Portrait of a Lady in Blue

Masters of Art: Thomas Gainsborough (1727   1788)    Thomas Gainsborough Mrs. Mary Robinson

Thomas Gainsborough – Mrs. Mary Robinson

Masters of Art: Thomas Gainsborough (1727   1788)    Thomas Gainsborough Mrs Sarah Siddons

Thomas Gainsborough – Mrs Sarah Siddons

Masters of Art: Thomas Gainsborough (1727   1788)    Thomas Gainsborough Mrs Grace Dalrymple Elliot

Thomas Gainsborough – Mrs Grace Dalrymple Elliot

Masters of Art: Thomas Gainsborough (1727   1788)    Thomas Gainsborough Mr and Mrs William Hallett

Thomas Gainsborough – Mr and Mrs William Hallett

Masters of Art: Thomas Gainsborough (1727   1788)    Thomas Gainsborough Master John Heathcote

Thomas Gainsborough – Master John Heathcote

Masters of Art: Thomas Gainsborough (1727   1788)    Thomas Gainsborough Lady Bate Dudley

Thomas Gainsborough – Lady Bate-Dudley

Masters of Art: Thomas Gainsborough (1727   1788)    Thomas Gainsborough Lady Alston

Thomas Gainsborough – Lady Alston

 

Hope you enjoyed the article as much as i did compiling the info and the images! See you next time!

Articles’ Images are in the public domain because their copyright has expired or are displayed here under the “ fair use” copyright law, and are available through WikipediaWikimedia.

This Articles’ text is licensed under the Creative Commons BY-SA License since it partially uses material from Wikipedia.

Pieter Bruegel the Elder - The Peasant Dance

Masters of Art: Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525 – 1569)

Pieter Bruegel the Elder [ c. 1525 – 9 September 1569) was a Flemish Renaissance painter and printmaker known for his landscapes and peasant scenes (so called genre painting). He is sometimes referred to as the "Peasant Bruegel" to distinguish him from other members of the Brueghel dynasty, but he is also the one generally meant when the context does not make clear which Brueghel is being referred to. From 1559 he dropped the 'h' from his name and signed his paintings as Bruegel.

Movements: Renaissance, Naturalism

According to some sources he was born in Breugel near the (now Dutch) town of Breda. There are however also records that he was born in Breda, and there is some uncertainty whether the (now Belgian) town of Bree, called Breda in Latin, is meant.

He was an apprentice of Pieter Coecke van Aelst, whose daughter Mayken he later married. He spent some time in France and Italy, and then went to Antwerp, where in 1551 he was accepted as a master in the painter's guild. He traveled to Italy soon after, and then returned to Antwerp before settling in Brussels permanently 10 years later.

Masters of Art: Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525   1569)   Pieter Bruegel the Elder The Peasant Dance

Pieter Bruegel the Elder – The Peasant Dance

He received the nickname ‘Peasant Bruegel’ or ‘Bruegel the Peasant’ for his alleged practice of dressing up like a peasant in order to mingle at weddings and other celebrations, thereby gaining inspiration and authentic details for his genre paintings. He died in Brussels on 9 September 1569 and was buried in the Kapellekerk. He was the father of Pieter Brueghel the Younger and Jan Brueghel the Elder. Both became painters, but as they were very young children when their father died, it is believed neither received any training from him. According to Carel van Mander, it is likely that they were instructed by their grandmother Mayken Verhulst van Aelst, who was also an artist.

In Bruegel’s later years he painted in a simpler style than the Italianate art that prevailed in his time. The most obvious influence on his art is the older Dutch master Hieronymus Bosch, particularly in Bruegel’s early “demonological” paintings such as The Triumph of Death and Dulle Griet (Mad Meg). It was in nature, however, that he found his greatest inspiration as he is identified as being a master of landscapes. It was in these landscapes that Bruegel created a story, seeming to combine several scenes in one painting. Such works can be seen in The Fall of the Rebel Angels and the previously mentioned The Triumph of Death.

Bruegel specialized in genre paintings populated by peasants, often with a large landscape element, but also painted religious works. Making the life and manners of peasants the main focus of a work was rare in painting in Brueghel’s time, and he was a pioneer of the Netherlandish genre painting. His earthy, unsentimental but vivid depiction of the rituals of village life—including agriculture, hunts, meals, festivals, dances, and games—are unique windows on a vanished folk culture and a prime source of iconographic evidence about both physical and social aspects of 16th century life. For example, the painting Netherlandish Proverbs illustrates dozens of then-contemporary aphorisms (many of them still in use in current Dutch or Flemish), and Children’s Games shows the variety of amusements enjoyed by young people. His winter landscapes of 1565 (e.g. Hunters in the Snow) are taken as corroborative evidence of the severity of winters during the Little Ice Age.

Masters of Art: Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525   1569)   Pieter Bruegel the Elder Winter Landscape with Skaters and Bird Trap

Pieter Bruegel the Elder – Winter Landscape with Skaters and Bird Trap

Using abundant spirit and comic power, he created some of the early images of acute social protest in art history. Examples include paintings such as The Fight Between Carnival and Lent (a satire of the conflicts of the Reformation) and engravings like The Ass in the School and Strongboxes Battling Piggybanks. On his deathbed he reportedly ordered his wife to burn the most subversive of his drawings to protect his family from political persecution.

Let’s now enjoy some of his most celebrated works!

Masters of Art: Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525   1569)   Pieter Bruegel the Elder The Fall of the Rebel Angels

Pieter Bruegel the Elder – The Fall of the Rebel Angels

Masters of Art: Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525   1569)   Pieter Bruegel the Elder The Corn Harvest August

Pieter Bruegel the Elder – The Corn Harvest (August)

Masters of Art: Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525   1569)   Pieter Bruegel the Elder The Census at Bethlehem

Pieter Bruegel the Elder – The Census at Bethlehem

Masters of Art: Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525   1569)   Pieter Bruegel the Elder Peasant Wedding

Pieter Bruegel the Elder – Peasant Wedding

Masters of Art: Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525   1569)   Pieter Bruegel the Elder Netherlandish Proverbs

Pieter Bruegel the Elder – Netherlandish Proverbs

Masters of Art: Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525   1569)   Pieter Bruegel the Elder Magpie on the Gallow

Pieter Bruegel the Elder – Magpie on the Gallow

Masters of Art: Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525   1569)   Pieter Bruegel the Elder Landscape with the Fall of Icarus

Pieter Bruegel the Elder – Landscape with the Fall of Icarus

Masters of Art: Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525   1569)   Pieter Bruegel the Elder Haymaking July

Pieter Bruegel the Elder – Haymaking (July)

Masters of Art: Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525   1569)   Pieter Bruegel the Elder Gloomy Day February

Pieter Bruegel the Elder – Gloomy Day (February)

Masters of Art: Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525   1569)   Pieter Bruegel the Elder Dulle Griet Mad Meg

Pieter Bruegel the Elder – Dulle Griet (Mad Meg)

Masters of Art: Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525   1569)   Pieter Bruegel the Elder Childrens Games

Pieter Bruegel the Elder – Children’s Games

Masters of Art: Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525   1569)   Pieter Bruegel the Elder The Tower of Babel

Pieter Bruegel the Elder -The Tower of Babel

Masters of Art: Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525   1569)   Pieter Bruegel the Elder The Hunters in the Snow January

Pieter Bruegel the Elder -The Hunters in the Snow (January)

Masters of Art: Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525   1569)   Pieter Bruegel the Elder The Triumph of Death

Pieter Bruegel the Elder – The Triumph of Death

Masters of Art: Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525   1569)   Pieter Bruegel the Elder The Temptation of St Anthony

Pieter Bruegel the Elder – The Temptation of St Anthony

Masters of Art: Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525   1569)   Pieter Bruegel the Elder The Suicide of Saul

Pieter Bruegel the Elder – The Suicide of Saul

Masters of Art: Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525   1569)   Pieter Bruegel the Elder The Parable of the Blind Leading the Blind

Pieter Bruegel the Elder – The Parable of the Blind Leading the Blind

Masters of Art: Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525   1569)   Pieter Bruegel the Elder The Fight between Carnival and Lent

Pieter Bruegel the Elder – The Fight between Carnival and Lent

Influence

His painting Landscape with the Fall of Icarus is the subject of the 1938 poem “Musée des Beaux Arts” by W. H. Auden, and also of a 1960 poem by William Carlos Williams that also uses Bruegel’s title.

Russian film director Andrei Tarkovksy referenced Bruegel’s paintings in his films several times, notably in Solaris (1972) and The Mirror (1975).

His 1564 painting The Procession to Calvary inspired the 2011 Polish-Swedish film co-production The Mill and the Cross, in which Bruegel is played by Rutger Hauer.

It is believed that his painting Hunters in the Snow influenced the classic short story with the same title written by Tobias Wolff and featured in In the Garden of the North American Martyrs.

Hope you enjoyed the article as much as i did compiling the info and the images! See you next time!

Articles’ Images are in the public domain because their copyright has expired, and are available through Wikimedia

This Articles’ text is licensed under the Creative Commons BY-SA License since it partially uses material from Wikipedia.

Jacobo-Robusti-(Tintoretto)---Christ-Washing-the-Feet-of-His-Disciples

Masters of Art: Tintoretto (1518 – 1594)

Tintoretto (September 29, 1518 – May 31, 1594), real name Jacopo Comin, was a Venetian painter and a notable exponent of the Renaissance school. For his phenomenal energy in painting he was termed Il Furioso. His work is characterized by its muscular figures, dramatic gestures and bold use of perspective in the Mannerist style, while maintaining color and light typical of the Venetian School.

Movements: Renaissance, Naturalism

In his youth, Tintoretto was also known as Jacopo Robusti as his father had defended the gates of Padua in a rather robust way against the imperial troops during the War of the League of Cambrai (1509–1516). His real name “Comin” has only recently been discovered by Miguel Falomir, the curator of the Museo del Prado, Madrid, and was made public on the occasion of the retrospective of Tintoretto at the Prado in 2007. Comin translates to the spice cumin in the local language.

Masters of Art: Tintoretto (1518   1594)   Jacobo Robusti Tintoretto St Roch in Prison Visited by an Angel

Jacobo Robusti (Tintoretto) – St Roch in Prison Visited by an Angel

Tintoretto was born in Venice in 1518, as the eldest of 21 children. His father, Giovanni, was a dyer, or tintore; hence the son got the nickname of Tintoretto, little dyer, or dyer’s boy, which is anglicized as Tintoret. The family originated from Brescia, in Lombardy, then part of the Republic of Venice. Older studies gave the Tuscan town of Lucca as the origin of the family.

In childhood Jacopo, a born painter, began daubing on the dyer’s walls; his father, noticing his bent, took him to the studio of Titian to see how far he could be trained as an artist. This was supposedly towards 1533, when Titian was already (according to the ordinary accounts) fifty-six years of age. Tintoretto had only been ten days in the studio when Titian sent him home once and for all, the reason being that the great master observed some very spirited drawings, which he learned to be the production of Tintoretto; and it is inferred that he became at once jealous of so promising a scholar. This, however, is mere conjecture; and perhaps it may be fairer to suppose that the drawings exhibited so much independence of manner that Titian judged that young Jacopo, although he might become a painter, would never be properly a pupil.

From this time forward the two always remained upon distant terms, Tintoretto being indeed a professed and ardent admirer of Titian, but never a friend, and Titian and his adherents turning the cold shoulder to him. Active disparagement also was not wanting, but it passed unnoticed by Tintoretto. The latter sought for no further teaching, but studied on his own account with laborious zeal; he lived poorly, collecting casts, bas-reliefs, &c., and practising by their aid. His noble conception of art and his high personal ambition were evidenced in the inscription which he placed over his studio Il disegno di Michelangelo ed il colorito di Tiziano (“Michelangelo‘s design and Titian’s color”)

Masters of Art: Tintoretto (1518   1594)   Jacobo Robusti Tintoretto The Origin of the Milky Way

Jacobo Robusti (Tintoretto) – The Origin of the Milky Way

He studied more especially from models of Michelangelo’s Dawn, Noon, Twilight and Night, and became expert in modelling in wax and clay method (practised likewise by Titian) which afterwards stood him in good stead in working out the arrangement of his pictures. The models were sometimes taken from dead subjects dissected or studied in anatomy schools; some were draped, others nude, and Tintoretto was to suspend them in a wooden or cardboard box, with an aperture for a candle. Now and afterwards he very frequently worked by night as well as by day.

Tintoretto scarcely ever travelled out of Venice.  He loved all the arts and as a youth played the lute and various instruments, some of them of his own invention, and designed theatrical costumes and properties. He was also versed in mechanics and mechanical devices. While being a very agreeable companion, for the sake of his work he lived in a mostly retired fashion, and even when not painting was wont to remain in his working room surrounded by casts. Here he hardly admitted any, even intimate friends, and he kept his mode of work secret, with the exception of his assistants. He abounded in pleasant witty sayings, whether to great personages or to others, but he himself seldom smiled.

Masters of Art: Tintoretto (1518   1594)   Jacobo Robusti Tintoretto The Miracle of St Mark Freeing the Slave

Jacobo Robusti (Tintoretto) – The Miracle of St Mark Freeing the Slave

Out of doors, his wife made him wear the robe of a Venetian citizen; if it rained she tried to induce him with an outer garment which he resisted. When he left the house, she would also wrap money up for him in a handkerchief, expecting a strict accounting on his return. Tintoretto’s customary reply was that he had spent it on alms to the poor or to prisoners.

An agreement is extant showing a plan to finish two historical paintings, each containing twenty figures, seven being portraits in a two month period of time. The number of his portraits is enormous; their merit is unequaled, but the really fine ones cannot be surpassed. Sebastiano del Piombo remarked that Tintoretto could paint in two days as much as himself in two years; Annibale Carracci that Tintoretto was in many pictures equal to Titian, in others inferior to Tintoretto. This was the general opinion of the Venetians, who said that he had three pencils—one of gold, the second of silver and the third of iron.

Masters of Art: Tintoretto (1518   1594)   Jacobo Robusti Tintoretto The Last Supper

Jacobo Robusti (Tintoretto) – The Last Supper

A comparison of Tintoretto’s final The Last Supper with Leonardo da Vinci’s treatment of the same subject provides an instructive demonstration of how artistic styles evolved over the course of the Renaissance. Leonardo’s is all classical repose. The disciples radiate away from Christ in almost-mathematical symmetry. In the hands of Tintoretto, the same event becomes dramatic, as the human figures are joined by angels. A servant is foregrounded, perhaps in reference to the Gospel of John 13:14-16. In the restless dynamism of his composition, his dramatic use of light, and his emphatic perspective effects, Tintoretto seems a baroque artist ahead of his time.

Masters of Art: Tintoretto (1518   1594)   Jacobo Robusti Tintoretto The Last Supper 2

Jacobo Robusti (Tintoretto) – The Last Supper 2

Let’s now enjoy some of his most celebrated works!
Masters of Art: Tintoretto (1518   1594)   Jacobo Robusti Tintoretto The Meeting of Tamar and Judah

Jacobo Robusti (Tintoretto) – The Meeting of Tamar and Judah

Masters of Art: Tintoretto (1518   1594)   Jacobo Robusti Tintoretto The Martyrdom of the Ten Thousand fragment

Jacobo Robusti (Tintoretto) – The Martyrdom of the Ten Thousand (fragment)

Masters of Art: Tintoretto (1518   1594)   Jacobo Robusti Tintoretto The Descent into Hell

Jacobo Robusti (Tintoretto) – The Descent into Hell

Masters of Art: Tintoretto (1518   1594)   Jacobo Robusti Tintoretto The Deposition

Jacobo Robusti (Tintoretto) – The Deposition

Masters of Art: Tintoretto (1518   1594)   Jacobo Robusti Tintoretto The Crucifixion of Christ

Jacobo Robusti (Tintoretto) – The Crucifixion of Christ

Masters of Art: Tintoretto (1518   1594)   Jacobo Robusti Tintoretto Marriage at Cana

Jacobo Robusti (Tintoretto) – Marriage at Cana

Masters of Art: Tintoretto (1518   1594)   Jacobo Robusti Tintoretto Creation of the Animals

Jacobo Robusti (Tintoretto) – Creation of the Animals

Masters of Art: Tintoretto (1518   1594)   Jacobo Robusti Tintoretto Christ Washing the Feet of His Disciples

Jacobo Robusti (Tintoretto) – Christ Washing the Feet of His Disciples

Masters of Art: Tintoretto (1518   1594)   Jacobo Robusti Tintoretto Christ at the Sea of Galilee

Jacobo Robusti (Tintoretto) – Christ at the Sea of Galilee

Masters of Art: Tintoretto (1518   1594)   Jacobo Robusti Tintoretto Venus Mars and Vulcan

Jacobo Robusti (Tintoretto) -Venus, Mars, and Vulcan

Masters of Art: Tintoretto (1518   1594)   Jacobo Robusti Tintoretto The Supper at Emmaus

Jacobo Robusti (Tintoretto) – The Supper at Emmaus

Hope you enjoyed the article as much as i did compiling the info and the images! See you next time!

Articles’ Images are in the public domain because their copyright has expired, and are available through Wikimedia

This Articles’ text is licensed under the Creative Commons BY-SA License since it partially uses material from Wikipedia.

 

 

Giorgione - The Three Ages

Masters of Art: Giorgione (1477 – 1510)

Giorgio Barbarelli da Castelfranco;  or simply Giorgione; (c. 1477/8 – 1510) was a Venetian painter of the High Renaissance in Venice, whose career was cut off by his death at a little over thirty.

Giorgione is known for the elusive poetic quality of his work, though only about six surviving paintings are acknowledged for certain to be his work. The resulting uncertainty about the identity and meaning of his art has made Giorgione one of the most mysterious figures in European painting.

Movements: Renaissance, Naturalism, Monumentalism, Secularism

Together with Titian, who was slightly younger, he is the founder of the distinctive Venetian school of Italian Renaissance painting, which achieves much of its effect through colour and mood, and is traditionally contrasted with the reliance on a more linear disegno of Florentine painting.

The painter came from the small town of Castelfranco Veneto, 40 km inland from Venice. How early in boyhood he went to Venice we do not know, but stylistic evidence supports the statement of Carlo Ridolfi that he served his apprenticeship there under Giovanni Bellini; there he settled and made his fame.

Contemporary documents record that his gifts were recognized early. In 1500, when he was only twenty-three, he was chosen to paint portraits of the Doge Agostino Barbarigo and the condottiere Consalvo Ferrante.

In 1504 he was commissioned to paint an altarpiece in memory of another condottiere, Matteo Costanzo, in the cathedral of his native town, Castelfranco. In 1507 he received at the order of the Council of Ten part payment for a picture (subject not mentioned) on which he was engaged for the Hall of the Audience in the Doge’s Palace.

Masters of Art: Giorgione (1477   1510)   Giorgione Portrait of Warrior with his Equerry

Giorgione – Portrait of Warrior with his Equerry

In 1507-1508 he was employed, with other artists of his generation, to decorate with frescoes the exterior of the newly rebuilt Fondaco dei Tedeschi (or German Merchants’ Hall) at Venice, having already done similar work on the exterior of the Casa Soranzo, the Casa Grimani alli Servi and other Venetian palaces. Very little of this work survives today.

Giorgione met with Leonardo da Vinci on the occasion of the Tuscan master’s visit to Venice in 1500. All accounts agree in representing Giorgione as a person of distinguished and romantic charm, a great lover and a musician, given to express in his art the sensuous and imaginative grace, touched with poetic melancholy, of the Venetian existence of his time. They represent him further as having made in Venetian painting an advance analogous to that made in Tuscan painting by Leonardo more than twenty years before; that is, as having released the art from the last shackles of archaic rigidity and placed it in possession of full freedom and the full mastery of its means.

He was very closely associated with Titian; Vasari says Giorgione was Titian’s master, while Ridolfi says they both were pupils of Bellini, and lived in his house. They worked together on the Fondaco dei Tedeschi frescoes, and Titian finished at least some paintings of Giorgione after his death, although which ones remains very controversial.

Giorgione also introduced a new range of subjects. Besides altarpieces and portraits he painted pictures that told no story, whether biblical or classical, or if they professed to tell a story, neglected the action and simply embodied in form and color moods of lyrical or romantic feeling, much as a musician might embody them in sounds. Innovating with the courage and felicity of genius, he had for a time an overwhelming influence on his contemporaries and immediate successors in the Venetian school, including Titian, Sebastiano del Piombo, Palma il Vecchio, il Cariani, Giulio Campagnola (and his brother), and even on his already eminent master, Giovanni Bellini. In the Venetian mainland, Giorgionismo strongly influenced Morto da Feltre, Domenico Capriolo, and Domenico Mancini.

Giorgione died, probably of the plague then raging, by October, 1510. October 1510 is also the date of a letter by Isabella d’Este to a Venetian friend; asking him to buy a painting by Giorgione; in the letter she is aware he is already dead. Significantly, the reply a month later said the painting was not to be had at any price.

Masters of Art: Giorgione (1477   1510)   Giorgione Sleeping Venus

Giorgione – Sleeping Venus

His name and work continue to exercise a spell on posterity. But to identify and define, among the relics of his age and school, precisely what that work is, and to distinguish it from the similar work of other men whom his influence inspired, is a very difficult matter.

Though there are no longer any supporters of the “Pan Giorgionismus” which a century ago claimed for Giorgione nearly every painting of the time that at all resembles his manner, there are still, as then, exclusive critics who reduce to half a dozen the list of extant pictures which they will admit to be actually by this master.

Masters of Art: Giorgione (1477   1510)   Giorgione The Three Philosophers

Giorgione – The Three Philosophers

The difficulty in making secure attributions of work by Giorgione’s hand dates from soon after his death, when some of his paintings were completed by other artists, and his considerable reputation also led to very early erroneous claims of attribution. The vast bulk of documentation for paintings in this period relates to large commissions for Church or government; the small domestic panels that make up the bulk of Giorgione’s oeuvre are always far less likely to be recorded. Other artists continued to work in his style for some years, and probably by the mid-century deliberately deceptive work had started.

Masters of Art: Giorgione (1477   1510)   Giorgione The Three Ages

Giorgione – The Three Ages

Though he died at 33, Giorgione left a lasting legacy to be developed by Titian and 17th-century artists. Giorgione never subordinated line and colour to architecture, nor an artistic effect to a sentimental presentation. He was arguably the first Italian to paint landscapes with figures as movable pictures in their own frames with no devotional, allegorical, or historical purpose — and the first whose colours possessed that ardent, glowing, and melting intensity which was so soon to typify the work of all the Venetian School

Let’s enjoy some of his other most celebrated works:

Masters of Art: Giorgione (1477   1510)   Giorgione Adoration of the Magi Masters of Art: Giorgione (1477   1510)   Giorgione Pastoral Concert Fête champêtre Masters of Art: Giorgione (1477   1510)   Giorgione Madonna with the Child St Anthony of Padua and St Roch Masters of Art: Giorgione (1477   1510)   Giorgione Madonna and Child Enthroned between St Francis and St Liberalis Masters of Art: Giorgione (1477   1510)   Giorgione Virgin and Child in a Landscape Masters of Art: Giorgione (1477   1510)   Giorgione The Adoration of the Shepherds Masters of Art: Giorgione (1477   1510)   Giorgione Tempest

Hope you enjoyed the article as much as i did compiling the info and the images! See you next time!

Articles’ Images are in the public domain because their copyright has expired, and are available through Wikimedia

This Articles’ text is licensed under the Creative Commons BY-SA License since it partially uses material from Wikipedia.

Albrecht-Dürer-Prayer-Hands

Masters of Art: Albrecht Dürer (1471 – 1528)

Albrecht Dürer (21 May 1471 – 6 April 1528) was a German painter, printmaker, engraver, mathematician, and theorist from Nuremberg. His prints established his reputation across Europe when he was still in his twenties, and he has been conventionally regarded as the greatest artist of the Northern Renaissance ever since.

Movements: Renaissance, Classicism, Idealism, Perspectivism, Naturalism


His vast body of work includes altarpieces and religious works, numerous portraits and self-portraits, and copper engravings. His woodcuts, such as the Apocalypse series (1498), retain a more Gothic flavour than the rest of his work.

His well-known works include the Knight, Death, and the Devil (1513), Saint Jerome in his Study (1514) and Melencolia I (1514), which has been the subject of extensive analysis and interpretation. His watercolours mark him as one of the first European landscape artists, while his ambitious woodcuts revolutionized the potential of that medium.

Dürer was born on 21 May 1471, third child and second son of his parents, who had between fourteen and eighteen children! His father, Albrecht Dürer the Elder was a successful goldsmith, originally named Ajtósi, who in 1455 had moved to Nuremberg from Ajtós, near Gyula in Hungary.

The German name “Dürer” is derived from the Hungarian, “Ajtósi”. Initially, it was “Thürer,” meaning doormaker, which is “ajtós” in Hungarian (from “ajtó”, meaning door). A door is featured in the coat-of-arms the family acquired. Albrecht Dürer the Younger later changed “Türer”, his father’s diction of the family’s surname, to “Dürer”, to adapt to the local Nuremberg dialect. Albrecht Dürer the Elder married Barbara Holper, the daughter of his master, when he himself became a master in 1467.

Because Dürer left autobiographical writings and became very famous by his mid-twenties, his life is well documented by several sources. After a few years of school, Dürer started to learn the basics of goldsmithing and drawing from his father. Though his father wanted him to continue his training as a goldsmith, he showed such a precocious talent in drawing that he started as an apprentice to Michael Wolgemut at the age of fifteen in 1486. A self-portrait, a drawing in silverpoint, is dated 1484 (Albertina, Vienna) “when I was a child,” as his later inscription says. Wolgemut was the leading artist in Nuremberg at the time, with a large workshop producing a variety of works of art, in particular woodcuts for books. Nuremberg was then an important and prosperous city, a centre for publishing and many luxury trades. It had strong links with Italy, especially Venice, a relatively short distance across the Alps.

After completing his term of apprenticeship, Dürer followed the common German custom of taking Wanderjahre—in effect gap year—in which the apprentice learned skills from artists in other areas; Dürer was to spend about four years away. He left in 1490, possibly to work under Martin Schongauer, the leading engraver of Northern Europe, but who died shortly before Dürer’s arrival at Colmar in 1492. It is unclear where Dürer travelled in the intervening period, though it is likely that he went to Frankfurt and the Netherlands. In Colmar, Dürer was welcomed by Schongauer’s brothers, the goldsmiths Caspar and Paul and the painter Ludwig. In 1493 Dürer went to Strasbourg, where he would have experienced the sculpture of Nikolaus Gerhaert. Dürer’s first painted self-portrait (now in the Louvre) was painted at this time, probably to be sent back to his fiancée in Nuremberg.

In early 1492 Dürer travelled to Basel to stay with another brother of Martin Schongauer, the goldsmith Georg.

Masters of Art:  Albrecht Dürer (1471   1528)   Albrecht Dürer Prayer Hands

Albrecht Dürer – Prayer Hands

Very soon after his return to Nuremberg, on 7 July 1494, at the age of 23, Dürer was married to Agnes Frey following an arrangement made during his absence. Agnes was the daughter of a prominent brass worker (and amateur harpist) in the city. However, no children resulted from the marriage.

Within three months Dürer left for Italy, alone, perhaps stimulated by an outbreak of plague in Nuremberg. He made watercolour sketches as he traveled over the Alps. Some have survived and others may be deduced from accurate landscapes of real places in his later work, for example his engraving Nemesis. These are the first pure landscape studies known in Western art.In Italy, he went to Venice to study its more advanced artistic world. Through Wolgemut’s tutelage, Dürer had learned how to make prints in drypoint and design woodcuts in the German style, based on the works of Martin Schongauer and the Housebook Master.

He also would have had access to some Italian works in Germany, but the two visits he made to Italy had an enormous influence on him. He wrote that Giovanni Bellini was the oldest and still the best of the artists in Venice. His drawings and engravings show the influence of others, notably Antonio Pollaiuolo with his interest in the proportions of the body, Mantegna, Lorenzo di Credi and others. Dürer probably also visited Padua and Mantua on this trip.

On his return to Nuremberg in 1495, Dürer opened his own workshop (being married was a requirement for this). Over the next five years his style increasingly integrated Italian influences into underlying Northern forms. Dürer’s father died in 1502, and his mother died in 1513.His best works in the first years of the workshop were his woodcut prints, mostly religious, but including secular scenes such as The Men’s Bath House (ca. 1496).

Dürer made large numbers of preparatory drawings, especially for his paintings and engravings, and many survive, most famously the Betende Hände (English: Praying Hands, c. 1508 Albertina, Vienna),

Between 1507 and 1511 Dürer worked on some of his most celebrated paintings: Adam and Eve (1507), The Martyrdom of the Ten Thousand (1508, for Frederick of Saxony), Virgin with the Iris (1508), the altarpiece Assumption of the Virgin (1509, for Jacob Heller of Frankfurt), and Adoration of the Trinity (1511, for Matthaeus Landauer).

 

Masters of Art:  Albrecht Dürer (1471   1528)   Albrecht Dürer Adam and Eve

Albrecht Dürer – Adam and Eve

During this period he also completed two woodcut series, the Great Passion and the Life of the Virgin, both published in 1511 together with a second edition of the Apocalypse series. The post-Venetian woodcuts show Dürer’s development of chiaroscuro modelling effects, creating a mid-tone throughout the print to which the highlights and shadows can be contrasted.Dürer died in Nuremberg at the age of 56, leaving an estate valued at 6,874 florins—a considerable sum. His large house (purchased in 1509 from the heirs of the astronomer Bernhard Walther), where his workshop was located and where his widow lived until her death in 1539, remains a prominent Nuremberg landmark and is now a museum. He is buried in the Johannisfriedhof cemetery.

Let’s now see some of his most famous works!
Masters of Art:  Albrecht Dürer (1471   1528)   Albrecht Dürer Vier Apostel 798x1024

Albrecht Dürer -Vier Apostel

Masters of Art:  Albrecht Dürer (1471   1528)   Albrecht Dürer Seven Sorrows Polyptych 715x1024

Albrecht Dürer – Seven Sorrows Polyptych

Masters of Art:  Albrecht Dürer (1471   1528)   Albrecht Dürer Saint Jerome

Albrecht Dürer – Saint Jerome

Masters of Art:  Albrecht Dürer (1471   1528)   Albrecht Dürer Porträt eines bärtigen Mannes mit roter Kappe

Albrecht Dürer – Porträt eines bärtigen Mannes mit roter Kappe

Masters of Art:  Albrecht Dürer (1471   1528)   Albrecht Dürer Portrait of Oswolt Krel

Albrecht Dürer – Portrait of Oswolt Krel

Masters of Art:  Albrecht Dürer (1471   1528)   Albrecht Dürer Maria mit Kind

Albrecht Dürer – Maria mit Kind

Masters of Art:  Albrecht Dürer (1471   1528)   Albrecht Dürer Jesus among the Doctors

Albrecht Dürer – Jesus among the Doctors

Masters of Art:  Albrecht Dürer (1471   1528)   Albrecht Dürer Beweinung Christi

Albrecht Dürer – Beweinung Christi

Masters of Art:  Albrecht Dürer (1471   1528)   Albrecht Dürer Allerheiligenbild

Albrecht Dürer – Allerheiligenbild

Masters of Art:  Albrecht Dürer (1471   1528)   Albrecht Dürer Adorazione dei Magi

Albrecht Dürer – Adorazione dei Magi

Masters of Art:  Albrecht Dürer (1471   1528)   Albrecht Dürer Martyrdom of ten thousand Christians

Albrecht Dürer – Martyrdom of ten thousand Christians

Legacy and influence

Dürer exerted a huge influence on the artists of succeeding generations, especially in printmaking, the medium through which his contemporaries mostly experienced his art, as his paintings were predominately in private collections located in only a few cities. His success in spreading his reputation across Europe through prints were undoubtedly an inspiration for major artists such as Raphael, Titian, and Parmigianino, all of whom collaborated with printmakers in order to promote and distribute their work.

 

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Leonardo-DaVinci-The-Virgin-and-Child-with-St.-Anne

Masters of Art: Leonardo DaVinci (1452 – 1519)

Leonardo da Vinci born Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (April 15, 1452 – May 2, 1519) was an Italian Renaissance polymath: painter, sculptor, architect, musician, scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and writer whose genius, perhaps more than that of any other figure, epitomized the Renaissance humanist ideal.

Movements: Renaissance, Secularism, Naturalism, Idealism

Masters of Art: Leonardo DaVinci (1452   1519)   Leonardo DaVinci Mona Lisa 201x300

Mona Lisa

Leonardo has often been described as the archetype of the Renaissance Man, a man of “unquenchable curiosity” and “feverishly inventive imagination.

He is widely considered to be one of the greatest painters of all time and perhaps the most diversely talented person ever to have lived.  According to art historian Helen Gardner, the scope and depth of his interests were without precedent and “his mind and personality seem to us superhuman, the man himself mysterious and remote”.

Leonardo was and is renowned primarily as a painter. Among his works, the Mona Lisa is the most famous and most parodied portrait and The Last Supper the most reproduced religious painting of all time, with their fame approached only by Michelangelo’s The Creation of Adam Leonardo’s drawing of the Vitruvian Man is also regarded as a cultural icon  being reproduced on items as varied as the euro, textbooks, and T-shirts.

Perhaps fifteen of his paintings survive, the small number because of his constant, and frequently disastrous, experimentation with new techniques, and his chronic procrastination.

Nevertheless, these few works, together with his notebooks, which contain drawings, scientific diagrams, and his thoughts on the nature of painting, compose a contribution to later generations of artists rivalled only by that of his contemporary, Michelangelo.

Leonardo is revered for his technological ingenuity. He conceptualised a helicopter, a tank, concentrated solar power, a calculator, and the double hull, and he outlined a rudimentary theory of plate tectonics. Relatively few of his designs were constructed or were even feasible during his lifetime, but some of his smaller inventions, such as an automated bobbin winder and a machine for testing the tensile strength of wire, entered the world of manufacturing unheralded.

 

Masters of Art: Leonardo DaVinci (1452   1519)   Leonardo DaVinci Annunciation

Annunciation

Masters of Art: Leonardo DaVinci (1452   1519)   Leonardo DaVinci The Baptism of Christ

The Baptism of Christ

Masters of Art: Leonardo DaVinci (1452   1519)   Leonardo DaVinci Madonne à lenfant

Madonne à l’enfant

Masters of Art: Leonardo DaVinci (1452   1519)   Leonardo DaVinci Last Supper

Last Supper

 

He made important discoveries in anatomy, civil engineering, optics, and hydrodynamics, but he did not publish his findings and they had no direct influence on later science.

Despite the recent awareness and admiration of Leonardo as a scientist and inventor, for the better part of four hundred years his fame rested on his achievements as a painter and on a handful of works, either authenticated or attributed to him that have been regarded as among the masterpieces.

These paintings are famous for a variety of qualities which have been much imitated by students and discussed at great length by connoisseurs and critics. Among the qualities that make Leonardo’s work unique are the innovative techniques that he used in laying on the paint, his detailed knowledge of anatomy, light, botany and geology, his interest in physiognomy and the way in which humans register emotion in expression and gesture, his innovative use of the human form in figurative composition, and his use of the subtle gradation of tone. All these qualities come together in his most famous painted works, the Mona Lisa, the Last Supper and the Virgin of the Rocks.

Leonardo was not a prolific painter, but he was a most prolific draftsman, keeping journals full of small sketches and detailed drawings recording all manner of things that took his attention. As well as the journals there exist many studies for paintings, some of which can be identified as preparatory to particular works such as The Adoration of the Magi, The Virgin of the Rocks and The Last Supper. His earliest dated drawing is a Landscape of the Arno Valley, 1473, which shows the river, the mountains, Montelupo Castle and the farmlands beyond it in great detail.

Among his famous drawings are the Vitruvian Man, a study of the proportions of the human body, the Head of an Angel, for The Virgin of the Rocks in the Louvre, a botanical study of Star of Bethlehem and a large drawing (160×100 cm) in black chalk on coloured paper of The Virgin and Child with St. Anne and St. John the Baptist in the National Gallery, London.

This drawing employs the subtle sfumato technique of shading, in the manner of the Mona Lisa. It is thought that Leonardo never made a painting from it, the closest similarity being to The Virgin and Child with St. Anne in the Louvre

Other drawings of interest include numerous studies generally referred to as “caricatures” because, although exaggerated, they appear to be based upon observation of live models. Vasari relates that if Leonardo saw a person with an interesting face he would follow them around all day observing them.

There are numerous studies of beautiful young men, often associated with Salai, with the rare and much admired facial feature, the so-called “Grecian profile”. These faces are often contrasted with that of a warrior. Salai is often depicted in fancy-dress costume. Leonardo is known to have designed sets for pageants with which these may be associated. Other, often meticulous, drawings show studies of drapery. A marked development in Leonardo’s ability to draw drapery occurred in his early works. Another often-reproduced drawing is a macabre sketch that was done by Leonardo in Florence in 1479 showing the body of Bernardo Baroncelli, hanged in connection with the murder of Giuliano, brother of Lorenzo de’Medici, in the Pazzi Conspiracy. With dispassionate integrity Leonardo has registered in neat mirror writing the colours of the robes that Baroncelli was wearing when he died.

 

Masters of Art: Leonardo DaVinci (1452   1519)   Study of a Tuscan Landscape

Study of a Tuscan Landscape

Masters of Art: Leonardo DaVinci (1452   1519)   Views of a Foetus in the Womb

Views of a Foetus in the Womb

The interest in Leonardo’s genius has continued unabated; experts study and translate his writings, analyse his paintings using scientific techniques, argue over attributions and search for works which have been recorded but never found.

Liana Bortolon, writing in 1967, said:

Because of the multiplicity of interests that spurred him to pursue every field of knowledge … Leonardo can be considered, quite rightly, to have been the universal genius par excellence, and with all the disquieting overtones inherent in that term. Man is as uncomfortable today, faced with a genius, as he was in the 16th century.Five centuries have passed, yet we still view Leonardo with awe!

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This Articles’ text is licensed under the Creative Commons BY-SA License since it partially uses material from Wikipedia.

Dead Christ Supported by the Madonna and St John (Pietà)

Masters of Art: Giovanni Bellini (1430 – 1516)

Giovanni Bellini (c. 1430–1516) was an Italian Renaissance painter, probably the best known of the Bellini family of Venetian painters. He is considered to have revolutionized Venetian painting, moving it towards a more sensuous and colouristic style. Through the use of clear, slow-drying oil paints, Giovanni created deep, rich tints and detailed shadings. His sumptuous coloring and fluent, atmospheric landscapes had a great effect on the Venetian painting school, especially on his pupils Giorgione and Titian.

Movements: Renaissance, Naturalism, Perspectivism

Masters of Art: Giovanni Bellini (1430   1516)   Bellini Giovanni Dead Christ Supported by the Madonna and St John Pietà 300x241

Dead Christ Supported by the Madonna and St John (Pietà)

Giovanni Bellini was born in Venice. He was brought up in his father’s house, and always lived and worked in the closest fraternal relation with his brother Gentile. Up until the age of nearly thirty we find in his work a depth of religious feeling and human pathos which is his own. His paintings from the early period are all executed in the old tempera method; the scene is softened by a new and beautiful effect of romantic sunrise color.

In a somewhat changed and more personal manner, with less harshness of contour and a broader treatment of forms and draperies, but not less force of religious feeling, are the Dead Christ pictures, in these days one of the master’s most frequent themes, (see for example the Pietà: Dead Christ Supported by the Virgin and St. John). Giovanni’s early works have often been linked both compositionally and stylistically to those of his brother-in-law, Andrea Mantegna.

As is the case with a number of his brother, Gentile’s public works of the period, many of Giovanni’s great public works are now lost. The still more famous altar-piece painted in tempera for a chapel in the church of S. Giovanni e Paolo, where it perished along with Titian’s Peter Martyr and Tintoretto’s Crucifixion in the disastrous fire of 1867.

Albrecht Dürer, visiting Venice for a second time in 1506, describes Giovanni Bellini as still the best painter in the city, and as full of all courtesy and generosity towards foreign brethren of the brush.

In 1507 Bellini’s brother Gentile died, and Giovanni completed the picture of the Preaching of St. Mark which he had left unfinished; a task on the fulfillment of which the bequest by the elder brother to the younger of their father’s sketch-book had been made conditional.

Masters of Art: Giovanni Bellini (1430   1516)   Bellini Giovanni Barbarigo Altarpiece

Barbarigo Altarpiece

Both in the artistic and in the worldly sense, the career of Bellini was, on the whole, very prosperous. His long career began with Quattrocento styles but matured into the progressive post-Giorgione Renaissance styles. He lived to see his own school far outshine that of his rivals, the Vivarini of Murano; he embodied, with growing and maturing power, all the devotional gravity and much also of the worldly splendour of the Venice of his time; and he saw his influence propagated by a host of pupils, two of whom at least, Giorgione and Titian, equalled or even surpassed their master. Giorgione he outlived by five years; Titian, as we have seen, challenged him, claiming an equal place beside his teacher.

Let’s see some of his most important works:

Masters of Art: Giovanni Bellini (1430   1516)   Bellini Giovanni Angel of the Annunciation and Virgin Annunciate

Angel of the Annunciation and Virgin Annunciate

Masters of Art: Giovanni Bellini (1430   1516)   Bellini Giovanni Agony in the Garden

Agony in the Garden

Masters of Art: Giovanni Bellini (1430   1516)   Bellini Giovanni San Zaccaria Altarpiece

San Zaccaria Altarpiece

Masters of Art: Giovanni Bellini (1430   1516)   Bellini Giovanni San Giobbe Altarpiece

San Giobbe Altarpiece

Masters of Art: Giovanni Bellini (1430   1516)   Bellini Giovanni Polyptych of San Vincenzo Ferreri

Polyptych of San Vincenzo Ferreri

Masters of Art: Giovanni Bellini (1430   1516)   Bellini Giovanni Pesaro Altarpiece

Pesaro Altarpiece

Masters of Art: Giovanni Bellini (1430   1516)   Bellini Giovanni Naked Young Woman in Front of the Mirror

Naked Young Woman in Front of the Mirror

Masters of Art: Giovanni Bellini (1430   1516)   Bellini Giovanni Madonna and Child

Madonna and Child

Masters of Art: Giovanni Bellini (1430   1516)   Bellini Giovanni Madonna and Child with Two Saints Sacra Conversazione

Madonna and Child with Two Saints (Sacra Conversazione)

Masters of Art: Giovanni Bellini (1430   1516)   Bellini Giovanni Madonna and Child Blessing

Madonna and Child Blessing

Masters of Art: Giovanni Bellini (1430   1516)   Bellini Giovanni Drunkennes of Noah

Drunkennes of Noah

Masters of Art: Giovanni Bellini (1430   1516)   Bellini Giovanni Dead Christ Supported by the Madonna and St John Pietà

Dead Christ Supported by the Madonna and St John (Pietà)

Hope you enjoyed the article as much as i did compiling the info and the images! See you next time!

Articles’ Images are in the public domain because their copyright has expired, and are available through Wikimedia

This Articles’ text is licensed under the Creative Commons BY-SA License since it partially uses material from Wikipedia.

Rogier van der Weyden - Der hl. Lukas zeichnet die Madonna

Masters of Art: Rogier van der Weyden (1399 – 1464)

Rogier van der Weyden or Roger de la Pasture (1399 – 1464) was an Early Flemish painter. His surviving works consist mainly of religious triptychs, altarpieces and commissioned single and diptych portraits. Although his life was generally uneventful, he was highly successful and internationally famous in his lifetime. His paintings were exported – or taken – to Italy and Spain and he received commissions from, amongst others, Philip the Good, Netherlandish nobility and foreign princes.

Movements: Renaissance, Naturalism

Masters of Art: Rogier van der Weyden (1399   1464)   Rogier van der Weyden Chroniques de Hainaut 300x227

Chroniques de Hainaut

By the latter half of the 15th century, he had eclipsed Jan van Eyck in popularity. However his fame lasted only until the 17th century, and largely due to changing taste, he was almost totally forgotten by the mid 18th century. His reputation was slowly rebuilt during the following 200 years; today he is known, with Robert Campin and van Eyck, as the third (by birth date) of the three great Early Flemish artists (‘Vlaamse Primitieven’), and widely as the most influential Northern painter of the 15th century.

Due to the loss of archives in 1695 and again in 1940, there are few certain facts of van der Weyden’s life. Rogelet de le Pasture (Roger of the Pasture) was born in Tournai (in present-day Belgium) in 1399 or 1400. His parents were Henri de le Pasture and Agnes de Watrélos. He married around 1426, to Elisabeth Goffaert, and was made town painter of Brussels in 1436, and changed his name from the French to the Dutch format, becoming ‘van der Weyden’. What is known of him beyond this has been woven together from secondary sources, and some of it is contestable. However the paintings now attributed to him are generally accepted, despite a tendency in the 19th century to attribute his work to others.

Van der Weyden left no self portraits. Many of his most important works were destroyed during the late 17th century. He is first mentioned in historical records in 1427 when, relatively later in life, he studied painting under Campin during 1427–32, and soon outshone his master and, later, even influenced him. After his apprenticeship he was made master of the Tournai Guild of St Luke. He moved to Brussels in 1435, where he quickly established his reputation for his technical skill and emotional use of line and colour. He completed his Deposition in 1435, which as he had deliberately intended, made him one of the most sought after and influential artists in northern Europe and is still considered his masterpiece.

Masters of Art: Rogier van der Weyden (1399   1464)   Rogier van der Weyden The Descent from the Cross

Deposition

Van der Weyden worked from life models, and his observations were acute, yet he often idealised certain elements of his models’ facial features, and they are typically statuesque, especially in his triptychs. All of his forms are rendered with rich, warm colourisation and a sympathetic expression, while he is known for his expressive pathos and naturalism. His portraits tend to be half length and half profile, and he is as sympathetic here as in his religious triptychs. Van der Weyden used an unusually broad range of colours and varied tones; in his finest work the same tone is not repeated in any other area of the canvas; even the whites are varied.

Lets see some of his most famous works:

Masters of Art: Rogier van der Weyden (1399   1464)   Rogier van der Weyden Der hl. Lukas zeichnet die Madonna

Der hl. Lukas zeichnet die Madonna

Masters of Art: Rogier van der Weyden (1399   1464)   Rogier van der Weyden Braque Family Triptych Center Pane

Braque Family Triptych Center Pane

Masters of Art: Rogier van der Weyden (1399   1464)   Rogier van der Weyden A Man Reading Saint Ivo

A Man Reading (Saint Ivo)

Masters of Art: Rogier van der Weyden (1399   1464)   Rogier van der Weyden Virgin and Child

Virgin and Child

Masters of Art: Rogier van der Weyden (1399   1464)   Rogier van der Weyden Tríptic Abegg

Tríptic Abegg

Masters of Art: Rogier van der Weyden (1399   1464)   Rogier van der Weyden The Magdalen Reading

The Magdalen Reading

Masters of Art: Rogier van der Weyden (1399   1464)   Rogier van der Weyden Sts Margaret and Apollonia

Sts Margaret and Apollonia

Masters of Art: Rogier van der Weyden (1399   1464)   Rogier van der Weyden Saint George and the Dragon

Saint George and the Dragon

Masters of Art: Rogier van der Weyden (1399   1464)   Rogier van der Weyden Porträt einer Frau

Porträt einer Frau

Masters of Art: Rogier van der Weyden (1399   1464)   Rogier van der Weyden Polyptych with the Nativity

Polyptych with the Nativity

Influence

His vigorous, subtle, expressive painting and popular religious conceptions had considerable influence on European painting, not only in France and Germany but also in Italy and in Spain. Hans Memling was his greatest follower, although it is not proven that he studied under Rogier. Van der Weyden had also a large influence on the German painter and engraver Martin Schongauer whose prints were distributed all over Europe from the last decades of the 15th century. Indirectly Schongauer’s prints helped to disseminate van der Weyden’s style.

 

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Articles’ Images are in the public domain because their copyright has expired, and are available through Wikimedia

This Articles’ text is licensed under the Creative Commons BY-SA License since it partially uses material from Wikipedia.

Guido di Pietro (Fra Angelico) - Coronation of the Virgin

Masters of Art: Fra Angelico (1395 – 1455)

Fra Angelico (born Guido di Pietro; c. 1395 – 1455) was an Early Italian Renaissance painter described by Vasari in his Lives of the Artists as having “a rare and perfect talent”. He was known to contemporaries as Fra Giovanni da Fiesole (Brother John of Fiesole) and Fra Giovanni Angelico (Angelic Brother John). In modern Italian he is called il Beato Angelico (Blessed Angelic One);  the common English name Fra Angelico means “Angelic Brother.”

Movements: Renaissance, Naturalism, International Gothicism, Perspectivism

Vasari wrote of Fra Angelico:

But it is impossible to bestow too much praise on this holy father, who was so humble and modest in all that he did and said and whose pictures were painted with such facility and piety.

Masters of Art: Fra Angelico (1395   1455)   Guido di Pietro Fra Angelico Receiving the Stigmata 300x245

Receiving the Stigmata

Fra Angelico was born Guido di Pietro at Rupecanina in the Tuscan area of Mugello near Fiesole towards the end of the 14th century. Nothing is known of his parents. He was baptized Guido or Guidolino. The earliest recorded document concerning Fra Angelico dates from October 17, 1417 when he joined a religious confraternity at the Carmine Church, still under the name of Guido di Pietro. This record also reveals that he was already a painter, a fact that is subsequently confirmed by two records of payment to Guido di Pietro in January and February 1418 for work done in the church of Santo Stefano del Ponte.  The first record of Angelico as a friar dates from 1423, when he is first referred to as Fra Giovanni, following the custom of those entering a religious order of taking a new name. According to Vasari, Fra Angelico initially received training as an illuminator, possibly working with his older brother Benedetto who was also a Dominican and an illuminator. San Marco in Florence holds several manuscripts that are thought to be entirely or partly by his hand. The painter Lorenzo Monaco may have contributed to his art training, and the influence of the Sienese school is discernible in his work. He had several important charges in the convents he lived in, but this did not limit his art, which very soon became famous. According to Vasari, the first paintings of this artist were an altarpiece and a painted screen for the Carthusian Monastery of Florence; none such exist there now.

From 1408 to 1418 Fra Angelico was at the Dominican friary of Cortona where he painted frescoes, now destroyed, in the Dominican Church and may have been assistant to or follower of Gherardo Starnina. Between 1418 and 1436 he was at the convent of Fiesole where he also executed a number of frescoes for the church, and the Altarpiece, deteriorated but restored. A predella of the Altarpiece remains intact in the National Gallery, London which is a superb example of Fra Angelico’s ability. It shows Christ in Glory, surrounded by more than 250 figures, including beatified Dominicans.

Masters of Art: Fra Angelico (1395   1455)   Guido di Pietro Fra Angelico The Story of St Nicholas

The Story of St Nicholas

In 1436 Fra Angelico was one of a number of the friars from Fiesole who moved to the newly-built Friary of San Marco in Florence. This was an important move which put him in the centre of artistic activity of the region and brought about the patronage of one of the wealthiest and most powerful members of the city’s Signoria, Cosimo de’ Medici, who had a large cell (later occupied by Savonarola) reserved for himself at the friary in order that he might retreat from the world. It was, according to Vasari, at Cosimo’s urging that Fra Angelico set about the task of decorating the monastery, including the magnificent Chapter House fresco, the often-reproduced Annunciation at the top of the stairs to the cells, the Maesta with Saints and the many smaller devotional frescoes depicting aspects of the Life of Christ that adorn the walls of each cell.

Masters of Art: Fra Angelico (1395   1455)   Guido di Pietro Fra Angelico Tempera on panel

Tempera on panel

In 1439 he completed one of his most famous works, the Altarpiece for St. Marco’s, Florence. The result was unusual for its times. Images of the enthroned Madonna and Child surrounded by saints were common, but they usually depicted a setting that was clearly heavenlike, in which saints and angels hovered about as divine presences rather than people. But in this instance, the saints stand squarely within the space, grouped in a natural way as if they were able to converse about the shared experience of witnessing the Virgin in glory. Paintings such as this, known as Sacred Conversations, were to become the major commissions of Giovanni Bellini, Perugino and Raphael.

In 1445 Pope Eugenius IV summoned him to Rome to paint the frescoes of the Chapel of the Holy Sacrament at St Peter’s, later demolished by Pope Paul III. Vasari claims that at this time Fra Angelico was offered by Pope Nicholas V the Archbishopric of Florence, and that he refused it, recommending another friar for the position. While the story seems possible and even likely, if Vasari’s date is correct, then the pope must have been Eugenius and not Nicholas. In 1447 Fra Angelico was in Orvieto with his pupil, Benozzo Gozzoli, executing works for the Cathedral. Among his other pupils were Zanobi Strozzi.

From 1447 to 1449 he was back at the Vatican, designing the frescoes for the Niccoline Chapel for Nicholas V. The scenes from the lives of the two martyred deacons of the Early Christian Church, St. Stephen and St. Lawrence may have been executed wholly or in part by assistants. The small chapel, with its brightly frescoed walls and gold leaf decorations gives the impression of a jewel box. From 1449 until 1452, Fra Angelico was back at his old convent of Fiesole, where he was the Prior.

In 1455 Fra Angelico died while staying at a Dominican Convent in Rome, perhaps in order to work on Pope Nicholas’ Chapel. He was buried in the church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva.

When singing my praise, don’t liken my talents to those of Apelles.
Say, rather, that, in the name of Christ, I gave all I had to the poor.
The deeds that count on Earth are not the ones that count in Heaven.
I, Giovanni, am the flower of Tuscany.

So let’s see some of his most important works:

Masters of Art: Fra Angelico (1395   1455)   Guido di Pietro Fra Angelico Saint Lawrence receives the treasures of the Church

Saint Lawrence receives the treasures of the Church

Masters of Art: Fra Angelico (1395   1455)   Guido di Pietro Fra Angelico Saint Anthony the Abbot Tempted by a Lump of Gold

Saint Anthony the Abbot Tempted by a Lump of Gold

Masters of Art: Fra Angelico (1395   1455)   Guido di Pietro Fra Angelico Massacre of the Innocents

Massacre of the Innocents

Masters of Art: Fra Angelico (1395   1455)   Guido di Pietro Fra Angelico giudizio universale

Giudizio universale

Masters of Art: Fra Angelico (1395   1455)   Guido di Pietro Fra Angelico Entombment of Christ

Entombment of Christ

Masters of Art: Fra Angelico (1395   1455)   Guido di Pietro Fra Angelico Deposition from the Cross

Deposition from the Cross

Masters of Art: Fra Angelico (1395   1455)   Guido di Pietro Fra Angelico Coronation of the Virgin

Coronation of the Virgin

Masters of Art: Fra Angelico (1395   1455)   Guido di Pietro Fra Angelico Circumcision

Circumcision

Masters of Art: Fra Angelico (1395   1455)   Guido di Pietro Fra Angelico Annunciation

Annunciation

Artistic legacy

Through Fra Angelico’s pupil Benozzo Gozzoli’s careful portraiture and technical expertise in the art of fresco we see a link to Domenico Ghirlandaio, who in turn painted extensive schemes for the wealthy patrons of Florence, and through Ghirlandaio to his pupil Michelangelo and the High Renaissance.

Apart from the lineal connection, superficially there may seem little to link the humble priest with his sweetly pretty Madonnas and timeless Crucifixions to the dynamic expressions of Michelangelo’s larger-than-life creations. But both these artists received their most important commissions from the wealthiest and most powerful of all patrons, the Vatican.

When Michelangelo took up the Sistine Chapel commission, he was working within a space that had already been extensively decorated by other artists. Around the walls the Life of Christ and Life of Moses were depicted by a range of artists including his teacher Ghirlandaio, Raphael’s teacher Perugino and Botticelli. They were works of large scale and exactly the sort of lavish treatment to be expected in a Vatican commission, vying with each other in complexity of design, number of figures, elaboration of detail and skilful use of gold leaf. Above these works stood a row of painted Popes in brilliant brocades and gold tiaras. None of these splendours have any place in the work which Michelangelo created. Michelangelo, when asked by Pope Julius II to ornament the robes of the Apostles in the usual way, responded that they were very poor men.

Within the cells of San’Marco, Fra Angelico had demonstrated that painterly skill and the artist’s personal interpretation were sufficient to create memorable works of art, without the expensive trappings of blue and gold. In the use of the unadorned fresco technique, the clear bright pastel colours, the careful arrangement of a few significant figures and the skilful use of expression, motion and gesture, Michelangelo showed himself to be the artistic descendant of Fra Angelico. Frederick Hartt describes Fra Angelico as “prophetic of the mysticism” of painters such as Rembrandt, El Greco and Zurbarán.

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