Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun - Self-Portrait with Her Daughter, Julie

Masters of Art: Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun (1755 – 1842)

Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun (Marie Élisabeth Louise; 16 April 1755 – 30 March 1842) was a French painter, and is recognized as the most important female painter of the 18th century. Her style is generally considered Rococo and shows interest in the subject of neoclassical painting. Vigée Le Brun cannot be considered a pure Neoclassist, however, in that she creates mostly portraits in Neoclassical dress rather than the History painting. In her choice of color and style while serving as the portrait painter to Marie Antoinette, Vigée Le Brun is purely Rococo.

Movements: Rococo, Neoclassicism

Born in Paris on 16 April 1755, Marie-Louise-Élisabeth Vigée was the daughter of a portraitist and fan painter, Louis Vigée, from whom she received her first instruction. Her mother was a hairdresser.

Masters of Art: Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun (1755   1842)   Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun Self Portrait

Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun – Self-Portrait

She was sent to live with relatives in Épernon until the age of 6 when she entered a convent where she remained for five years. Her father died when she was 12 years old following an infection from surgery to remove a fish bone lodged in his throat. In 1768, her mother married a wealthy jeweler, Jacques-Francois Le Sèvre and the family moved to the rue Saint-Honoré close to the Palais Royal. She was later patronised by the wealthy heiress Louise Marie Adélaïde de Bourbon, wife of Philippe Égalité. During this period Louise Élisabeth benefited by the advice of Gabriel François Doyen, Jean-Baptiste Greuze, Joseph Vernet, and other masters of the period.

By the time she was in her early teens, Louise Élisabeth was painting portraits professionally. After her studio was seized, for practising without a license, she applied to the Académie de Saint Luc, which unwittingly exhibited her works in their Salon. On 25 October 1783, she was made a member of the Académie.

On 7 August 1775 she married Jean-Baptiste-Pierre Le Brun, a painter and art dealer. (Her husband’s great uncle was Charles Le Brun, first Director of the French Academy under Louis XIV.) Vigée Le Brun painted portraits of many of the nobility of the day and as her career blossomed, she was invited to the Palace of Versailles to paint Marie Antoinette. So pleased was the queen that during a period of six years, Vigée Le Brun would paint more than thirty portraits of the queen and her family, leading to her being commonly viewed as the official portraitist of Marie Antoinette. Whilst of benefit during the reign of the Bourbon royals, this label was to prove problematic later.

On 12 February 1780, Vigée Le Brun gave birth to a daughter, Jeanne Julie Louise, whom she called “Julie”.

In 1781 she and her husband toured Flanders and the Netherlands where seeing the works of the Flemish masters inspired her to try new techniques. There, she painted portraits of some of the nobility, including the Prince of Nassau.

On 31 May 1783, Vigée Le Brun was accepted as a member of France’s Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture. She submitted numerous portraits along with an allegorical history painting which she considered her morceau de réception—La Paix qui ramène l’Abondance (Peace Bringing Back Prosperity). The Academy did not place her work within an academic category of type of painting—history or portraiture.

Adélaïde Labille-Guiard also was admitted on the same day. The admission of Vigée Le Brun was opposed on the grounds that her husband was an art dealer, but eventually they were overruled by an order from Louis XVI because Marie Antoinette put considerable pressure on her husband on behalf of her painter. In 1789, she was succeeded as court painter to Marie Antoinette by Alexander Kucharsky.

After the arrest of the royal family during the French Revolution Vigée Le Brun fled France with her young daughter Julie. She lived and worked for some years in Italy, Austria, and Russia, where her experience in dealing with an aristocratic clientele was still useful. In Rome, her paintings met with great critical acclaim and she was elected to the Roman Accademia di San Luca.

Masters of Art: Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun (1755   1842)   Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun Hubert Robert Artist

Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun – Hubert Robert, Artist

In Russia, she was received by the nobility and painted numerous aristocrats including the last king of Poland Stanisław August Poniatowski and members of the family of Catherine the Great. Although the French aesthetic was widely admired in Russia there remained some cultural differences in what was deemed acceptable. Catherine was not initially happy with Vigée Le Brun’s portrait of her granddaughters, Elena and Alexandra Pavlovna, due to the area of bare skin the short sleeved gowns revealed. In order to please the Empress, Vigée Le Brun added sleeves giving the work its characteristic look. This tactic seemed effective in pleasing Catherine as she agreed to sit herself for Vigée Le Brun (although Catherine died of a stroke before this work was due to begin).

While in Saint Petersburg, Vigée Le Brun was made a member of the Academy of Fine Arts of Saint Petersburg. Much to Vigée Le Brun’s dismay, her daughter Julie married a Russian nobleman.

After a sustained campaign by her ex-husband and other family members to have her name removed from the list of counter-revolutionary émigrés, Vigée Le Brun was finally able to return to France during the reign of Emperor Napoleon I. In spite of being no longer labeled as émigrée, her relationship with the new regime was never totally harmonious, as might be expected given that she was a strong royalist and the former portraitist of Marie Antoinette.

Much in demand by the élite of Europe, she visited England at the beginning of the 19th century and painted the portrait of several British notables including Lord Byron. In 1807 she traveled to Switzerland and was made an honorary member of the Société pour l’Avancement des Beaux-Arts of Geneva.

She published her memoirs in 1835 and 1837, which provide an interesting view of the training of artists at the end of the period dominated by royal academies. Her portrait of fellow neoclassical painter, Hubert Robert, is in Paris at Musée National du Louvre.

Still very active with her painting in her fifties, she purchased a house in Louveciennes, Île-de-France, and lived there until the house was seized by the Prussian Army during the war in 1814. She stayed in Paris until her death on 30 March 1842 when her body was taken back to Louveciennes and buried in the Cimetière de Louveciennes near her old home.

Her tombstone epitaph states:

Ici, enfin, je repose… (Here, at last, I rest…)

Vigée Le Brun left a legacy of 660 portraits and 200 landscapes. In addition to private collections, her works may be found at major museums, such as Hermitage Museum, London’s National Gallery, in Europe and the United States.

Masters of Art: Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun (1755   1842)   Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun Self Portrait with Her Daughter Julie

Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun – Self-Portrait with Her Daughter, Julie

 

Masters of Art: Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun (1755   1842)   Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun The Daughter Portrait

Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun – The Daughter Portrait

Masters of Art: Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun (1755   1842)   Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun The Genius of Alexander

Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun – The Genius of Alexander

Masters of Art: Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun (1755   1842)   Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun Madame dAguesseau de Fresnes

Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun – Madame d’Aguesseau de Fresnes

Masters of Art: Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun (1755   1842)   Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun Marie Antoinette

Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun – Marie Antoinette

Masters of Art: Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun (1755   1842)   Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun Portrait of a Young Woman

Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun – Portrait of a Young Woman

Masters of Art: Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun (1755   1842)   Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun Portrait of Anna Pitt as Hebe

Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun – Portrait of Anna Pitt as Hebe

Masters of Art: Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun (1755   1842)   Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun Portrait of Hyacinthe Gabrielle Roland

Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun – Portrait of Hyacinthe Gabrielle Roland

Masters of Art: Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun (1755   1842)   Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun Portrait of Madame de Staël as Corinne on Cape Misenum

Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun – Portrait of Hyacinthe Gabrielle Roland

Masters of Art: Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun (1755   1842)   Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun Self Portrait in a Straw Hat

Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun – Self-Portrait in a Straw Hat

 

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Joseph Turner - The Grand Canal, Venice

Masters of Art: Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775 – 1851)

Joseph Mallord William “J. M. W.” Turner, RA (23 April 1775 – 19 December 1851) was a British Romantic landscape painter, water-colourist, and printmaker. Turner was considered a controversial figure in his day, but is now regarded as the artist who elevated landscape painting to an eminence rivalling history painting. Although renowned for his oil paintings, Turner is also one of the greatest masters of British watercolour landscape painting. He is commonly known as “the painter of light” and his work is regarded as a Romantic preface to Impressionism.

Movements: Romanticism, Classicism, Impressionism 

Joseph Mallord William Turner was born on or around the 23 April 1775 in Maiden Lane, Covent Garden, London, England. His father, William Turner (1738–7 August 1829), was a barber and wig maker,his mother, Mary Marshall, came from a family of butchers. A younger sister, Mary Ann Turner, was born in September 1778 but died aged four in August 1783.

In 1785, as a result of a “fit of illness” in the family the young Turner was sent to stay with his maternal uncle, Joseph Mallord William Marshall, in Brentford, which was then a small town west of London on the banks of the River Thames. From this period, the earliest known artistic exercise by Turner is found, a series of simple colourings of engraved plates from Henry Boswell’s Picturesque View of the Antiquities of England and Wales.

Masters of Art: Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775   1851)   Joseph Turner Self Portrait

Joseph Turner – Self-Portrait

Around 1786, Turner was sent to Margate on the north-east Kent coast. Here Turner produced a series of early drawings of the town and surrounding area foreshadowing his later work. Turner would return to Margate many times in later life. By this time, Turner’s drawings were already being exhibited in his father’s shop window and sold for a few shillings each. His father boasted to the artist Thomas Stothard that: “My son, sir, is going to be a painter”.In 1789 Turner again stayed with his uncle, who by this time had retired to Sunningwell in Oxford. A whole sketchbook of work from his time in Oxford survives, as well as an early watercolour of Oxford. The use of pencil sketches on location as a basis for later finished paintings would form the basis of Turner’s essential working style for his whole career.

Many of the early sketches by Turner were studies of Architecture and/or exercises in perspective and it is known that the young Turner worked for several architects including Thomas Hardwick (junior), James Wyatt and Bonomi the Elder.

By the end of 1789 he had also begun to study under the topographical draughtsman Thomas Malton, whom Turner would later call “My real master”. He entered the Royal Academy of Art schools in 1789, when he was only 14 years old, and was accepted into the academy a year later. Sir Joshua Reynolds, president of the Royal Academy, chaired the panel that admitted him. At first Turner showed a keen interest in architecture but was advised to continue painting by the architect Thomas Hardwick (junior). His first watercolour A View of the Archbishop’s Palace, Lambeth was accepted for the Summer Exhibition of 1790 when Turner was only 15.

As a probationer in the Academy, he was taught drawing (not painting) from plaster casts of antique sculptures and his name appears in the registry of the Academy over a hundred times from July 1790 to October 1793. In June 1792 he was admitted to the life class to learn to draw the human body from nude models.

Turner continued to exhibit watercolours each year at the Academy – travelling in the summer and painting in the winter. He travelled widely throughout Britain, particularly to Wales, and produced a wide range of sketches for working up into studies and watercolours. These particularly focused on architectural work, which utilised his skills as a draughtsman. In 1793, he showed a watercolour with the title The Rising Squall – Hot Wells from St Vincent’s Rock Bristol (now lost) that foreshadowed his later climatic effects.

Cunningham in his obituary of Turner wrote that it was: “recognised by the wiser few as a nobel attempt at lift in landscape art out of the tame insipidities…[and] evinced for the fist time that mastery of effect for which he is now justly celebrated.”

Turner exhibited his first oil painting at the Academy in 1796, Fishermen at Sea. A nocturnal moonlit scene off the Needles, Isle of Wight. The image of boats in peril contrasts the cold light of the moon with the firelight glow of the fishermen’s lantern. Wilton has said that the image: “Is a summary of all that had been said about the sea by the artists of the eighteenth century.” and shows strong influence by artists such as Horace Vernet, Philip James de Loutherbourg and Willem van de Velde the Younger. The image was praised by contemporary critics and would found Turner’s reputation, both as an oil painter and as a painter of maritime scenes.

Turner travelled widely in Europe, starting with France and Switzerland in 1802 and studying in the Louvre in Paris in the same year. He also made many visits toVenice. On a visit to Lyme Regis, in Dorset, England, he painted a stormy scene (now in the Cincinnati Art Museum).

Important support for his work also came from Walter Ramsden Fawkes, of Farnley Hall, near Otley in Yorkshire, who became a close friend of the artist.

Masters of Art: Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775   1851)   Joseph Turner The Grand Canal Venice

Joseph Turner – The Grand Canal, Venice

Turner first visited Otley in 1797, aged 22, when commissioned to paint watercolours of the area. He was so attracted to Otley and the surrounding area that he returned to it throughout his career. The stormy backdrop of Hannibal Crossing The Alps is reputed to have been inspired by a storm over Otley’s Chevin while Turner was staying at Farnley Hall.

Turner was also a frequent guest of George O’Brien Wyndham, 3rd Earl of Egremont at Petworth House in West Sussex and painted scenes that Egremont funded taken from the grounds of the house and of the Sussex countryside, including a view of the Chichester Canal. Petworth House still displays a number of paintings.

As he grew older, Turner became more eccentric. He had few close friends except for his father, who lived with him for 30 years, eventually working as his studio assistant. His father’s death in 1829 had a profound effect on him, and thereafter he was subject to bouts of depression. He never married but had a relationship with an older widow, Sarah Danby. He is believed to have been the father of her two daughters born in 1801 and 1811.

He died in the house of his mistress Sophia Caroline Booth in Cheyne Walk, Chelsea on 19 December 1851. He is said to have uttered the last words “The sun is God” before expiring. At his request he was buried in St Paul’s Cathedral, where he lies next to Sir Joshua Reynolds. His last exhibition at the Royal Academy was in 1850.

The architect Philip Hardwick (1792–1870) who was a friend of Turner’s and also the son of the artist’s tutor, Thomas Hardwick, was in charge of making his funeralarrangements and wrote to those who knew Turner to tell them at the time of his death that, “I must inform you, we have lost him.” Other active executors were his cousin and executor, and chief mourner at the funeral, Henry Harpur IV (benefactor of Westminster – now Chelsea & Westminster – Hospital), Revd. Henry Scott Trimmer, George Jones RA and Charles Turner ARA.

Turner’s talent was recognised early in his life. Financial independence allowed Turner to innovate freely; his mature work is characterised by a chromatic palette and broadly applied atmospheric washes of paint. According to David Piper’s The Illustrated History of Art, his later pictures were called “fantastic puzzles.” However, Turner was still recognised as an artistic genius: the influential English art critic John Ruskindescribed Turner as the artist who could most “stirringly and truthfully measure the moods of Nature.” (Piper 321)

Suitable vehicles for Turner’s imagination were to be found in the subjects of shipwrecks, fires (such as the burning of Parliament in 1834, an event which Turner rushed to witness first-hand, and which he transcribed in a series of watercolour sketches), natural catastrophes, and natural phenomena such as sunlight, storm, rain, and fog. He was fascinated by the violent power of the sea, as seen in Dawn after the Wreck (1840) and The Slave Ship (1840).

Turner’s major venture into printmaking was the Liber Studiorum (Book of Studies), a set of seventy prints that the artist worked on from 1806 to 1819. The Liber Studiorum was an expression of his intentions for landscape art. Loosely based on Claude Lorrain’s Liber Veritatis (Book of Truth), the plates were meant to be widely disseminated, and categorised the genre into six types: Marine, Mountainous, Pastoral, Historical, Architectural, and Elevated or Epic Pastoral.His printmaking was a major part of his output, and a whole museum is devoted to it, the Turner Museum in Sarasota, Florida, founded in 1974 by Douglass Montrose-Graem to house his collection of Turner prints.

Masters of Art: Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775   1851)   Joseph Turner Ulysses Deriding Polyphemus

Joseph Turner – Ulysses Deriding Polyphemus

Turner placed human beings in many of his paintings to indicate his affection for humanity on the one hand (note the frequent scenes of people drinking and merry-making or working in the foreground), but its vulnerability and vulgarity amid the ‘sublime’ nature of the world on the other hand. ‘Sublime’ here means awe-inspiring, savage grandeur, a natural world unmastered by man, evidence of the power of God–a theme that artists and poets were exploring in this period.

The significance of light was to Turner the emanation of God’s spirit and this was why he refined the subject matter of his later paintings by leaving out solid objects and detail, concentrating on the play of light on water, the radiance of skies and fires. Although these late paintings appear to be ‘impressionistic’ and therefore a forerunner of the French school, Turner was striving for expression of spirituality in the world, rather than responding primarily to optical phenomena.

His distinctive style of painting, in which he used watercolour technique with oil paints, created lightness, fluency, and ephemeral atmospheric effects.

One popular story about Turner, though it likely has little basis in reality, states that he even had himself “tied to the mast of a ship in order to experience the drama” of the elements during a storm at sea.

In his later years he used oils ever more transparently, and turned to an evocation of almost pure light by use of shimmering colour. A prime example of his mature style can be seen in Rain, Steam and Speed – The Great Western Railway, where the objects are barely recognizable. The intensity of hue and interest in evanescent light not only placed Turner’s work in the vanguard of English painting, but later exerted an influence upon art in France, as well; the Impressionists, particularly Claude Monet, carefully studied his techniques.

Turner left a small fortune which he hoped would be used to support what he called “decayed artists”. He planned and designed an almshouse for them at Twickenham with a gallery for some of his works. His will was contested and in 1856, after a court battle, part of his fortune was awarded to his first cousins including Thomas Price Turner.

Another portion of the money went to the Royal Academy of Arts, which occasionally awards students the Turner Medal. His collection of finished paintings was bequeathed to the British nation, and he intended that a special gallery would be built to house them. This did not come to pass owing to a failure to agree on a site, and then to the parsimony of British governments. Twenty-two years after his death, the British Parliament passed an Act allowing his paintings to be lent to museums outside London, and so began the process of scattering the pictures which Turner had wanted to be kept together.

Masters of Art: Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775   1851)   Joseph Turner The Angel Standing in the Sun

Joseph Turner – The Angel Standing in the Sun

In 1910 the main part of the Turner Bequest, which includes unfinished paintings and drawings, was rehoused in the Duveen Turner Wing at the Tate Gallery. In 1987 a new wing of the Tate, the Clore Gallery, was opened specifically to house the Turner bequest, though some of the most important paintings in it remain in the National Gallery in contravention of Turner’s condition that the finished pictures be kept and shown together.

Increasingly paintings are lent abroad, ignoring Turner’s provision that they be kept “constantly” in Turner’s Gallery. After the Turner content was diminished and diluted in the Clore Gallery from c. 2002, in 2010–12 only two of the nine rooms on the main floor were devoted to Turner. The claim that the Tate was fulfilling Turner’s wishes was dropped in 1995, when the Charity Commission said that the Turner Bequest had been free of Turner’s conditions. This was challenged by Leolin Price QC.

The Turner Society was founded by Selby Whittingham at London and Manchester in 1975. After that endorsed the Tate Gallery’s Clore Gallery wing as the solution (on the lines of the Duveen wing of 1910), to the controversy of what should be done with the Turner Bequest, Selby Whittingham resigned from that and founded the Independent Turner Society.

A prestigious annual art award, the Turner Prize, created in 1984, was named in Turner’s honour, and twenty years later the Winsor & Newton Turner Watercolour Award was founded.

A major exhibition, “Turner’s Britain”, with material (including The Fighting Temeraire) on loan from around the globe, was held at Birmingham Museum & Art Galleryfrom 7 November 2003 to 8 February 2004.

In 2005, Turner’s The Fighting Temeraire was voted Britain’s “greatest painting” in a public poll organised by the BBC.

 

Masters of Art: Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775   1851)   Joseph Turner The Decline of the Carthaginian Empire

Masters of Art: Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775   1851)   Joseph Turner The Fall of an Avalanche in the Grisons

Joseph Turner – The Fall of an Avalanche in the Grisons

Masters of Art: Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775   1851)   Joseph Turner The Fighting Temeraire tugged to her Last Berth to be broken up

Joseph Turner – The ‘Fighting Temeraire’ tugged to her Last Berth to be broken up

Masters of Art: Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775   1851)   Joseph Turner Undine Giving the Ring to Massaniello Fisherman of Naples

Joseph Turner – Undine Giving the Ring to Massaniello, Fisherman of Naples

Masters of Art: Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775   1851)   Joseph Turner Campo Santo

Joseph Turner – Campo Santo

Masters of Art: Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775   1851)   Joseph Turner Dutch Boats in a Gale

Joseph Turner – Dutch Boats in a Gale

Masters of Art: Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775   1851)   Joseph Turner Frosty Morning

Joseph Turner – Frosty Morning

Masters of Art: Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775   1851)   Joseph Turner Heriots Hospital Edinburgh

Joseph Turner – Heriot’s Hospital, Edinburgh

Masters of Art: Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775   1851)   Joseph Turner Peace Burial at Sea

Joseph Turner – Peace – Burial at Sea

Masters of Art: Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775   1851)   Joseph Turner Peace The Shipwreck

Joseph Turner – Peace – The Shipwreck

Masters of Art: Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775   1851)   Joseph Turner Quillebeuf at the Mouth of Seine

Joseph Turner – Quillebeuf, at the Mouth of Seine

Masters of Art: Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775   1851)   Joseph Turner Rain Steam and Speed The Great Western Railway

Joseph Turner – Rain, Steam and Speed The Great Western Railway

Masters of Art: Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775   1851)   Joseph Turner San Giorgio Maggiore at Dawn

Joseph Turner – San Giorgio Maggiore at Dawn

 

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Antonio da Correggio - Danaë

Life and Paintings of Antonio da Correggio (1489 – 1534)

Antonio Allegri da Correggio (August 1489 – March 5, 1534), usually known as Correggio, was the foremost painter of the Parma school of the Italian Renaissance, who was responsible for some of the most vigorous and sensuous works of the 16th century. In his use of dynamic composition, illusionistic perspective and dramatic foreshortening, Correggio prefigured the Rococo art of the 18th century.

Movements: Renaissance, Illusionism, Monumentalism

[Please note that Corregio’s paintings contain nudity, if that offends you don’t read the article.]

Life and Paintings of Antonio da Correggio (1489   1534)   Antonio da Correggio The Education of Cupid

Antonio da Correggio – The Education of Cupid

Antonio Allegri was born in Correggio, Italy, a small town near Reggio Emilia. His date of birth is uncertain (around 1489). His father was a merchant. Otherwise, little is known about Correggio’s life or training. In the years 1503-1505 he apprenticed to Francesco Bianchi Ferrara of Modena. Here he probably knew the classicism of artists like Lorenzo Costa and Francesco Francia, evidence of which can be found in his first works. After a trip to Mantua in 1506, he returned to Correggio, where he stayed until 1510.

To this period is assigned the Adoration of the Child with St. Elizabeth and John, which shows clear influences from Costa and Mantegna. In 1514 he probably finished three tondos for the entrance of the church of Sant’Andrea in Mantua, and then returned to Correggio: here, as an independent and increasingly renowned artist, he signed a contract for the Madonna altarpiece in the local monastery of St. Francis (now in the Dresden Gemäldegalerie). Correggio’s first major commission (February–September 1519) was the ceiling decoration of the private dining salon of the mother-superior (abbess Giovanna Piacenza) of the convent of St Paul called the Camera di San Paolo at Parma. Here he painted a delightful arbor pierced by oculi opening to glimpses of playful cherubs.

Below the oculi are lunettes with images of feigned monochromic marble. The fireplace is frescoed with an image of Diana. The iconography of the unit is complex, joining images of classical marbles to whimsical colorful bambini. While it recalls the secular frescoes of the pleasure palace of the Villa Farnesina in Rome, it is also a strikingly novel form of interior decoration. Other masterpieces include The Lamentation and The Martyrdom of Four Saints, both at the Galleria Nazionale of Parma.

The Lamentation is haunted by a lambence rarely seen in Italian painting prior to this time. The Martyrdom is also remarkable for resembling later Baroque compositions such as Bernini’s Truth and Ercole Ferrata’s Death of Saint Agnes, showing a gleeful saint entering martyrdom

Let’s now enjoy some of his most celebrated works

Life and Paintings of Antonio da Correggio (1489   1534)   Antonio da Correggio Noli Me Tangere

Antonio da Correggio – Noli Me Tangere

Life and Paintings of Antonio da Correggio (1489   1534)   Antonio da Correggio Assumption of the Virgin

Antonio da Correggio – Assumption of the Virgin

Life and Paintings of Antonio da Correggio (1489   1534)   Antonio da Correggio Allegory of Virtues

Antonio da Correggio – Allegory of Virtues

Life and Paintings of Antonio da Correggio (1489   1534)   Antonio da Correggio Allegory of Vices

Antonio da Correggio – Allegory of Vices

Life and Paintings of Antonio da Correggio (1489   1534)   Antonio da Correggio Venus and Cupid with a Satyr

Antonio da Correggio – Venus and Cupid with a Satyr

Life and Paintings of Antonio da Correggio (1489   1534)   Antonio da Correggio The Adoration of the Magi

Antonio da Correggio – The Adoration of the Magi

Life and Paintings of Antonio da Correggio (1489   1534)   Antonio da Correggio Madonna of the Basket

Antonio da Correggio – Madonna of the Basket

Life and Paintings of Antonio da Correggio (1489   1534)   Antonio da Correggio Madonna with St. Francis

Antonio da Correggio – Madonna with St. Francis

Life and Paintings of Antonio da Correggio (1489   1534)   Antonio da Correggio Madonna and Child with Sts Jerome and Mary Magdalen The Day

Antonio da Correggio – Madonna and Child with Sts Jerome and Mary Magdalen (The Day)

Life and Paintings of Antonio da Correggio (1489   1534)   Antonio da Correggio Leda with the Swan

Antonio da Correggio – Leda with the Swan

Life and Paintings of Antonio da Correggio (1489   1534)   Antonio da Correggio Danaë

Antonio da Correggio – Danaë

Correggio was remembered by his contemporaries as a shadowy, melancholic and introverted character, traits possibly conditioned by his birth into a large and poor family.

Correggio is an enigmatic and eclectic artist, and it is not always possible to identify a stylistic link between his paintings. He appears to have emerged out of no major apprenticeship, and to have had little immediate influence in terms of apprenticed successors, but his works are now considered to have been revolutionary and influential on subsequent artists. A half-century after his death Correggio’s work was well known to Vasari, who felt that he had not had enough “Roman” exposure to make him a better painter. In the 18th and 19th centuries, his works were often remembered in the diaries of foreign visitors to Italy, which led to a reevaluation of his art during the period of Romanticism.

The flight of the Madonna in the vault of the cupola of the Cathedral of Parma inspired numerous scenographical decorations in lay and religious palaces during those centuries.

Corregio’s illusionistic experiments, in which imaginary spaces replace the natural reality, seem to prefigure many elements of Mannerist and Baroque stylistic approaches. In other words, he appears to have fostered artistic grandchildren, despite having no direct disciples outside of Parma, where he was influential on the work of Giovanni Maria Francesco Rondani, Parmigianino, Bernardo Gatti, and Giorgio Gandini del Grano. His son, Pomponio Allegri became a painter.

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Articles’ Images are in the public domain because their copyright has expired, and are available through Wikimedia

This Articles’ text is licensed under the Creative Commons BY-SA License since it partially uses material from Wikipedia.

 

Dead Christ Supported by the Madonna and St John (Pietà)

Life and Paintings of Giovanni Bellini (1430 – 1516)

Giovanni Bellini (c. 1430–1516) was an Italian Renaissance painter, probably the best known of the Bellini family of Venetian painters. He is considered to have revolutionized Venetian painting, moving it towards a more sensuous and colouristic style. Through the use of clear, slow-drying oil paints, Giovanni created deep, rich tints and detailed shadings. His sumptuous coloring and fluent, atmospheric landscapes had a great effect on the Venetian painting school, especially on his pupils Giorgione and Titian.

Movements: Renaissance, Naturalism, Perspectivism

Life and Paintings of Giovanni Bellini (1430   1516)   Bellini Giovanni Dead Christ Supported by the Madonna and St John Pietà 300x241

Dead Christ Supported by the Madonna and St John (Pietà)

Giovanni Bellini was born in Venice. He was brought up in his father’s house, and always lived and worked in the closest fraternal relation with his brother Gentile. Up until the age of nearly thirty we find in his work a depth of religious feeling and human pathos which is his own. His paintings from the early period are all executed in the old tempera method; the scene is softened by a new and beautiful effect of romantic sunrise color.

In a somewhat changed and more personal manner, with less harshness of contour and a broader treatment of forms and draperies, but not less force of religious feeling, are the Dead Christ pictures, in these days one of the master’s most frequent themes, (see for example the Pietà: Dead Christ Supported by the Virgin and St. John). Giovanni’s early works have often been linked both compositionally and stylistically to those of his brother-in-law, Andrea Mantegna.

As is the case with a number of his brother, Gentile’s public works of the period, many of Giovanni’s great public works are now lost. The still more famous altar-piece painted in tempera for a chapel in the church of S. Giovanni e Paolo, where it perished along with Titian’s Peter Martyr and Tintoretto’s Crucifixion in the disastrous fire of 1867.

Albrecht Dürer, visiting Venice for a second time in 1506, describes Giovanni Bellini as still the best painter in the city, and as full of all courtesy and generosity towards foreign brethren of the brush.

In 1507 Bellini’s brother Gentile died, and Giovanni completed the picture of the Preaching of St. Mark which he had left unfinished; a task on the fulfillment of which the bequest by the elder brother to the younger of their father’s sketch-book had been made conditional.

Life and Paintings of Giovanni Bellini (1430   1516)   Bellini Giovanni Barbarigo Altarpiece

Barbarigo Altarpiece

Both in the artistic and in the worldly sense, the career of Bellini was, on the whole, very prosperous. His long career began with Quattrocento styles but matured into the progressive post-Giorgione Renaissance styles. He lived to see his own school far outshine that of his rivals, the Vivarini of Murano; he embodied, with growing and maturing power, all the devotional gravity and much also of the worldly splendour of the Venice of his time; and he saw his influence propagated by a host of pupils, two of whom at least, Giorgione and Titian, equalled or even surpassed their master. Giorgione he outlived by five years; Titian, as we have seen, challenged him, claiming an equal place beside his teacher.

Let’s see some of his most important works:

Life and Paintings of Giovanni Bellini (1430   1516)   Bellini Giovanni Angel of the Annunciation and Virgin Annunciate

Angel of the Annunciation and Virgin Annunciate

Life and Paintings of Giovanni Bellini (1430   1516)   Bellini Giovanni Agony in the Garden

Agony in the Garden

Life and Paintings of Giovanni Bellini (1430   1516)   Bellini Giovanni San Zaccaria Altarpiece

San Zaccaria Altarpiece

Life and Paintings of Giovanni Bellini (1430   1516)   Bellini Giovanni San Giobbe Altarpiece

San Giobbe Altarpiece

Life and Paintings of Giovanni Bellini (1430   1516)   Bellini Giovanni Polyptych of San Vincenzo Ferreri

Polyptych of San Vincenzo Ferreri

Life and Paintings of Giovanni Bellini (1430   1516)   Bellini Giovanni Pesaro Altarpiece

Pesaro Altarpiece

Life and Paintings of Giovanni Bellini (1430   1516)   Bellini Giovanni Naked Young Woman in Front of the Mirror

Naked Young Woman in Front of the Mirror

Life and Paintings of Giovanni Bellini (1430   1516)   Bellini Giovanni Madonna and Child

Madonna and Child

Life and Paintings of Giovanni Bellini (1430   1516)   Bellini Giovanni Madonna and Child with Two Saints Sacra Conversazione

Madonna and Child with Two Saints (Sacra Conversazione)

Life and Paintings of Giovanni Bellini (1430   1516)   Bellini Giovanni Madonna and Child Blessing

Madonna and Child Blessing

Life and Paintings of Giovanni Bellini (1430   1516)   Bellini Giovanni Drunkennes of Noah

Drunkennes of Noah

Life and Paintings of Giovanni Bellini (1430   1516)   Bellini Giovanni Dead Christ Supported by the Madonna and St John Pietà

Dead Christ Supported by the Madonna and St John (Pietà)

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Articles’ Images are in the public domain because their copyright has expired, and are available through Wikimedia

This Articles’ text is licensed under the Creative Commons BY-SA License since it partially uses material from Wikipedia.

Pieter Bruegel the Elder - The Peasant Dance

Life and Paintings of Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525 – 1569)

Pieter Bruegel the Elder [ c. 1525 – 9 September 1569) was a Flemish Renaissance painter and printmaker known for his landscapes and peasant scenes (so called genre painting). He is sometimes referred to as the “Peasant Bruegel” to distinguish him from other members of the Brueghel dynasty, but he is also the one generally meant when the context does not make clear which Brueghel is being referred to. From 1559 he dropped the ‘h’ from his name and signed his paintings as Bruegel.

Movements: Renaissance, Naturalism

According to some sources he was born in Breugel near the (now Dutch) town of Breda. There are however also records that he was born in Breda, and there is some uncertainty whether the (now Belgian) town of Bree, called Breda in Latin, is meant.

He was an apprentice of Pieter Coecke van Aelst, whose daughter Mayken he later married. He spent some time in France and Italy, and then went to Antwerp, where in 1551 he was accepted as a master in the painter’s guild. He traveled to Italy soon after, and then returned to Antwerp before settling in Brussels permanently 10 years later.

Life and Paintings of Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525   1569)   Pieter Bruegel the Elder The Peasant Dance

Pieter Bruegel the Elder – The Peasant Dance

He received the nickname ‘Peasant Bruegel’ or ‘Bruegel the Peasant’ for his alleged practice of dressing up like a peasant in order to mingle at weddings and other celebrations, thereby gaining inspiration and authentic details for his genre paintings. He died in Brussels on 9 September 1569 and was buried in the Kapellekerk. He was the father of Pieter Brueghel the Younger and Jan Brueghel the Elder. Both became painters, but as they were very young children when their father died, it is believed neither received any training from him. According to Carel van Mander, it is likely that they were instructed by their grandmother Mayken Verhulst van Aelst, who was also an artist.

In Bruegel’s later years he painted in a simpler style than the Italianate art that prevailed in his time. The most obvious influence on his art is the older Dutch master Hieronymus Bosch, particularly in Bruegel’s early “demonological” paintings such as The Triumph of Death and Dulle Griet (Mad Meg). It was in nature, however, that he found his greatest inspiration as he is identified as being a master of landscapes. It was in these landscapes that Bruegel created a story, seeming to combine several scenes in one painting. Such works can be seen in The Fall of the Rebel Angels and the previously mentioned The Triumph of Death.

Bruegel specialized in genre paintings populated by peasants, often with a large landscape element, but also painted religious works. Making the life and manners of peasants the main focus of a work was rare in painting in Brueghel’s time, and he was a pioneer of the Netherlandish genre painting. His earthy, unsentimental but vivid depiction of the rituals of village life—including agriculture, hunts, meals, festivals, dances, and games—are unique windows on a vanished folk culture and a prime source of iconographic evidence about both physical and social aspects of 16th century life. For example, the painting Netherlandish Proverbs illustrates dozens of then-contemporary aphorisms (many of them still in use in current Dutch or Flemish), and Children’s Games shows the variety of amusements enjoyed by young people. His winter landscapes of 1565 (e.g. Hunters in the Snow) are taken as corroborative evidence of the severity of winters during the Little Ice Age.

Life and Paintings of Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525   1569)   Pieter Bruegel the Elder Winter Landscape with Skaters and Bird Trap

Pieter Bruegel the Elder – Winter Landscape with Skaters and Bird Trap

Using abundant spirit and comic power, he created some of the early images of acute social protest in art history. Examples include paintings such as The Fight Between Carnival and Lent (a satire of the conflicts of the Reformation) and engravings like The Ass in the School and Strongboxes Battling Piggybanks. On his deathbed he reportedly ordered his wife to burn the most subversive of his drawings to protect his family from political persecution.

Let’s now enjoy some of his most celebrated works!

Life and Paintings of Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525   1569)   Pieter Bruegel the Elder The Fall of the Rebel Angels

Pieter Bruegel the Elder – The Fall of the Rebel Angels

Life and Paintings of Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525   1569)   Pieter Bruegel the Elder The Corn Harvest August

Pieter Bruegel the Elder – The Corn Harvest (August)

Life and Paintings of Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525   1569)   Pieter Bruegel the Elder The Census at Bethlehem

Pieter Bruegel the Elder – The Census at Bethlehem

Life and Paintings of Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525   1569)   Pieter Bruegel the Elder Peasant Wedding

Pieter Bruegel the Elder – Peasant Wedding

Life and Paintings of Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525   1569)   Pieter Bruegel the Elder Netherlandish Proverbs

Pieter Bruegel the Elder – Netherlandish Proverbs

Life and Paintings of Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525   1569)   Pieter Bruegel the Elder Magpie on the Gallow

Pieter Bruegel the Elder – Magpie on the Gallow

Life and Paintings of Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525   1569)   Pieter Bruegel the Elder Landscape with the Fall of Icarus

Pieter Bruegel the Elder – Landscape with the Fall of Icarus

Life and Paintings of Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525   1569)   Pieter Bruegel the Elder Haymaking July

Pieter Bruegel the Elder – Haymaking (July)

Life and Paintings of Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525   1569)   Pieter Bruegel the Elder Gloomy Day February

Pieter Bruegel the Elder – Gloomy Day (February)

Life and Paintings of Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525   1569)   Pieter Bruegel the Elder Dulle Griet Mad Meg

Pieter Bruegel the Elder – Dulle Griet (Mad Meg)

Life and Paintings of Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525   1569)   Pieter Bruegel the Elder Childrens Games

Pieter Bruegel the Elder – Children’s Games

Life and Paintings of Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525   1569)   Pieter Bruegel the Elder The Tower of Babel

Pieter Bruegel the Elder -The Tower of Babel

Life and Paintings of Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525   1569)   Pieter Bruegel the Elder The Hunters in the Snow January

Pieter Bruegel the Elder -The Hunters in the Snow (January)

Life and Paintings of Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525   1569)   Pieter Bruegel the Elder The Triumph of Death

Pieter Bruegel the Elder – The Triumph of Death

Life and Paintings of Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525   1569)   Pieter Bruegel the Elder The Temptation of St Anthony

Pieter Bruegel the Elder – The Temptation of St Anthony

Life and Paintings of Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525   1569)   Pieter Bruegel the Elder The Suicide of Saul

Pieter Bruegel the Elder – The Suicide of Saul

Life and Paintings of Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525   1569)   Pieter Bruegel the Elder The Parable of the Blind Leading the Blind

Pieter Bruegel the Elder – The Parable of the Blind Leading the Blind

Life and Paintings of Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525   1569)   Pieter Bruegel the Elder The Fight between Carnival and Lent

Pieter Bruegel the Elder – The Fight between Carnival and Lent

Influence

His painting Landscape with the Fall of Icarus is the subject of the 1938 poem “Musée des Beaux Arts” by W. H. Auden, and also of a 1960 poem by William Carlos Williams that also uses Bruegel’s title.

Russian film director Andrei Tarkovksy referenced Bruegel’s paintings in his films several times, notably in Solaris (1972) and The Mirror (1975).

His 1564 painting The Procession to Calvary inspired the 2011 Polish-Swedish film co-production The Mill and the Cross, in which Bruegel is played by Rutger Hauer.

It is believed that his painting Hunters in the Snow influenced the classic short story with the same title written by Tobias Wolff and featured in In the Garden of the North American Martyrs.

Hope you enjoyed the article as much as i did compiling the info and the images! See you next time!

Articles’ Images are in the public domain because their copyright has expired, and are available through Wikimedia

This Articles’ text is licensed under the Creative Commons BY-SA License since it partially uses material from Wikipedia.

Jacobo-Robusti-(Tintoretto)---Christ-Washing-the-Feet-of-His-Disciples

Life and Paintings of Tintoretto (1518 – 1594)

Tintoretto (September 29, 1518 – May 31, 1594), real name Jacopo Comin, was a Venetian painter and a notable exponent of the Renaissance school. For his phenomenal energy in painting he was termed Il Furioso. His work is characterized by its muscular figures, dramatic gestures and bold use of perspective in the Mannerist style, while maintaining color and light typical of the Venetian School.

Movements: Renaissance, Naturalism

In his youth, Tintoretto was also known as Jacopo Robusti as his father had defended the gates of Padua in a rather robust way against the imperial troops during the War of the League of Cambrai (1509–1516). His real name “Comin” has only recently been discovered by Miguel Falomir, the curator of the Museo del Prado, Madrid, and was made public on the occasion of the retrospective of Tintoretto at the Prado in 2007. Comin translates to the spice cumin in the local language.

Life and Paintings of Tintoretto (1518   1594)   Jacobo Robusti Tintoretto St Roch in Prison Visited by an Angel

Jacobo Robusti (Tintoretto) – St Roch in Prison Visited by an Angel

Tintoretto was born in Venice in 1518, as the eldest of 21 children. His father, Giovanni, was a dyer, or tintore; hence the son got the nickname of Tintoretto, little dyer, or dyer’s boy, which is anglicized as Tintoret. The family originated from Brescia, in Lombardy, then part of the Republic of Venice. Older studies gave the Tuscan town of Lucca as the origin of the family.

In childhood Jacopo, a born painter, began daubing on the dyer’s walls; his father, noticing his bent, took him to the studio of Titian to see how far he could be trained as an artist. This was supposedly towards 1533, when Titian was already (according to the ordinary accounts) fifty-six years of age. Tintoretto had only been ten days in the studio when Titian sent him home once and for all, the reason being that the great master observed some very spirited drawings, which he learned to be the production of Tintoretto; and it is inferred that he became at once jealous of so promising a scholar. This, however, is mere conjecture; and perhaps it may be fairer to suppose that the drawings exhibited so much independence of manner that Titian judged that young Jacopo, although he might become a painter, would never be properly a pupil.

From this time forward the two always remained upon distant terms, Tintoretto being indeed a professed and ardent admirer of Titian, but never a friend, and Titian and his adherents turning the cold shoulder to him. Active disparagement also was not wanting, but it passed unnoticed by Tintoretto. The latter sought for no further teaching, but studied on his own account with laborious zeal; he lived poorly, collecting casts, bas-reliefs, &c., and practising by their aid. His noble conception of art and his high personal ambition were evidenced in the inscription which he placed over his studio Il disegno di Michelangelo ed il colorito di Tiziano (“Michelangelo‘s design and Titian’s color”)

Life and Paintings of Tintoretto (1518   1594)   Jacobo Robusti Tintoretto The Origin of the Milky Way

Jacobo Robusti (Tintoretto) – The Origin of the Milky Way

He studied more especially from models of Michelangelo’s Dawn, Noon, Twilight and Night, and became expert in modelling in wax and clay method (practised likewise by Titian) which afterwards stood him in good stead in working out the arrangement of his pictures. The models were sometimes taken from dead subjects dissected or studied in anatomy schools; some were draped, others nude, and Tintoretto was to suspend them in a wooden or cardboard box, with an aperture for a candle. Now and afterwards he very frequently worked by night as well as by day.

Tintoretto scarcely ever travelled out of Venice.  He loved all the arts and as a youth played the lute and various instruments, some of them of his own invention, and designed theatrical costumes and properties. He was also versed in mechanics and mechanical devices. While being a very agreeable companion, for the sake of his work he lived in a mostly retired fashion, and even when not painting was wont to remain in his working room surrounded by casts. Here he hardly admitted any, even intimate friends, and he kept his mode of work secret, with the exception of his assistants. He abounded in pleasant witty sayings, whether to great personages or to others, but he himself seldom smiled.

Life and Paintings of Tintoretto (1518   1594)   Jacobo Robusti Tintoretto The Miracle of St Mark Freeing the Slave

Jacobo Robusti (Tintoretto) – The Miracle of St Mark Freeing the Slave

Out of doors, his wife made him wear the robe of a Venetian citizen; if it rained she tried to induce him with an outer garment which he resisted. When he left the house, she would also wrap money up for him in a handkerchief, expecting a strict accounting on his return. Tintoretto’s customary reply was that he had spent it on alms to the poor or to prisoners.

An agreement is extant showing a plan to finish two historical paintings, each containing twenty figures, seven being portraits in a two month period of time. The number of his portraits is enormous; their merit is unequaled, but the really fine ones cannot be surpassed. Sebastiano del Piombo remarked that Tintoretto could paint in two days as much as himself in two years; Annibale Carracci that Tintoretto was in many pictures equal to Titian, in others inferior to Tintoretto. This was the general opinion of the Venetians, who said that he had three pencils—one of gold, the second of silver and the third of iron.

Life and Paintings of Tintoretto (1518   1594)   Jacobo Robusti Tintoretto The Last Supper

Jacobo Robusti (Tintoretto) – The Last Supper

A comparison of Tintoretto’s final The Last Supper with Leonardo da Vinci’s treatment of the same subject provides an instructive demonstration of how artistic styles evolved over the course of the Renaissance. Leonardo’s is all classical repose. The disciples radiate away from Christ in almost-mathematical symmetry. In the hands of Tintoretto, the same event becomes dramatic, as the human figures are joined by angels. A servant is foregrounded, perhaps in reference to the Gospel of John 13:14-16. In the restless dynamism of his composition, his dramatic use of light, and his emphatic perspective effects, Tintoretto seems a baroque artist ahead of his time.

Life and Paintings of Tintoretto (1518   1594)   Jacobo Robusti Tintoretto The Last Supper 2

Jacobo Robusti (Tintoretto) – The Last Supper 2

Let’s now enjoy some of his most celebrated works!
Life and Paintings of Tintoretto (1518   1594)   Jacobo Robusti Tintoretto The Meeting of Tamar and Judah

Jacobo Robusti (Tintoretto) – The Meeting of Tamar and Judah

Life and Paintings of Tintoretto (1518   1594)   Jacobo Robusti Tintoretto The Martyrdom of the Ten Thousand fragment

Jacobo Robusti (Tintoretto) – The Martyrdom of the Ten Thousand (fragment)

Life and Paintings of Tintoretto (1518   1594)   Jacobo Robusti Tintoretto The Descent into Hell

Jacobo Robusti (Tintoretto) – The Descent into Hell

Life and Paintings of Tintoretto (1518   1594)   Jacobo Robusti Tintoretto The Deposition

Jacobo Robusti (Tintoretto) – The Deposition

Life and Paintings of Tintoretto (1518   1594)   Jacobo Robusti Tintoretto The Crucifixion of Christ

Jacobo Robusti (Tintoretto) – The Crucifixion of Christ

Life and Paintings of Tintoretto (1518   1594)   Jacobo Robusti Tintoretto Marriage at Cana

Jacobo Robusti (Tintoretto) – Marriage at Cana

Life and Paintings of Tintoretto (1518   1594)   Jacobo Robusti Tintoretto Creation of the Animals

Jacobo Robusti (Tintoretto) – Creation of the Animals

Life and Paintings of Tintoretto (1518   1594)   Jacobo Robusti Tintoretto Christ Washing the Feet of His Disciples

Jacobo Robusti (Tintoretto) – Christ Washing the Feet of His Disciples

Life and Paintings of Tintoretto (1518   1594)   Jacobo Robusti Tintoretto Christ at the Sea of Galilee

Jacobo Robusti (Tintoretto) – Christ at the Sea of Galilee

Life and Paintings of Tintoretto (1518   1594)   Jacobo Robusti Tintoretto Venus Mars and Vulcan

Jacobo Robusti (Tintoretto) -Venus, Mars, and Vulcan

Life and Paintings of Tintoretto (1518   1594)   Jacobo Robusti Tintoretto The Supper at Emmaus

Jacobo Robusti (Tintoretto) – The Supper at Emmaus

Hope you enjoyed the article as much as i did compiling the info and the images! See you next time!

Articles’ Images are in the public domain because their copyright has expired, and are available through Wikimedia

This Articles’ text is licensed under the Creative Commons BY-SA License since it partially uses material from Wikipedia.

 

 

William Hogarth - Marriage à la Mode2

Masters of Art: William Hogarth (1697 – 1764)

William Hogarth (10 November 1697 – 26 October 1764) was an English painter, printmaker, pictorial satirist, social critic and editorial cartoonist who has been credited with pioneering western sequential art. His work ranged from realistic portraiture to comic strip-like series of pictures called “modern moral subjects”. Knowledge of his work is so pervasive that satirical political illustrations in this style are often referred to as “Hogarthian.”

Movements: Rococo

William Hogarth was born at Bartholomew Close in London to Richard Hogarth, a poor Latin school teacher and textbook writer, and Anne Gibbons. In his youth he was apprenticed to the engraver Ellis Gamble in Leicester Fields, where he learned to engrave trade cards and similar products. Young Hogarth also took a lively interest in the street life of the metropolis and the London fairs, and amused himself by sketching the characters he saw. Around the same time, his father, who had opened an unsuccessful Latin-speaking coffee house at St John’s Gate, was imprisoned for debt in Fleet Prison for five years. Hogarth never spoke of his father’s imprisonment.

He became a member of the Rose and Crown Club, with Peter Tillemans, George Vertue, Michael Dahl, and other artists and connoisseurs.

By April 1720 Hogarth was an engraver in his own right, at first engraving coats of arms, shop bills, and designing plates for booksellers.

Masters of Art: William Hogarth (1697   1764)   William Hogarth An Election Entertainment

William Hogarth – An Election Entertainment

In 1727, he was hired by Joshua Morris, a tapestry worker, to prepare a design for the Element of Earth. Morris heard that he was “an engraver, and no painter”, and consequently declined the work when completed. Hogarth accordingly sued him for the money in the Westminster Court, where the case was decided in his favour on 28 May 1728. In 1757 he was appointed Serjeant Painter to the King.

Early satirical works included an Emblematical Print on the South Sea Scheme (c.1721), about the disastrous stock market crash of 1720 known as the South Sea Bubble, in which many English people lost a great deal of money. In the bottom left corner, he shows Protestant, Catholic, and Jewish figures gambling, while in the middle there is a huge machine, like a merry-go-round, which people are boarding. At the top is a goat, written below which is “Who’l Ride”. The people are scattered around the picture with a sense of disorder, while the progress of the well dressed people towards the ride in the middle shows the foolishness of the crowd in buying stock in the South Sea Company, which spent more time issuing stock than anything else.

Other early works include The Lottery (1724); The Mystery of Masonry brought to Light by the Gormogons (1724); A Just View of the British Stage (1724); some book illustrations; and the small print, Masquerades and Operas (1724). The latter is a satire on contemporary follies, such as the masquerades of the Swiss impresario John James Heidegger, the popular Italian opera singers, John Rich’s pantomimes at Lincoln’s Inn Fields, and the exaggerated popularity of Lord Burlington’s protégé, the architect and painter William Kent. He continued that theme in 1727, with the Large Masquerade Ticket. In 1726 Hogarth prepared twelve large engravings for Samuel Butler’s Hudibras. These he himself valued highly, and are among his best book illustrations.

In the following years he turned his attention to the production of small “conversation pieces” (i.e., groups in oil of full-length portraits from 12 to 15 in. high). Among his efforts in oil between 1728 and 1732 were The Fountaine Family (c.1730), The Assembly at Wanstead House, The House of Commons examining Bambridge, and several pictures of the chief actors in John Gay’s popular The Beggar’s Opera.

Masters of Art: William Hogarth (1697   1764)   William Hogarth Before the Seduction and After

William Hogarth – Before the Seduction and After

In 1731, he completed the earliest of the series of moral works which first gave him recognition as a great and original genius. This was A Harlot’s Progress, first as paintings, (now lost), and then published as engravings. In its six scenes, the miserable fate of a country girl who began a prostitution career in town is traced out remorselessly from its starting point, the meeting of a bawd, to its shameful and degraded end, the whore’s death of venereal disease and the following merciless funeral ceremony. The series was an immediate success, and was followed in 1735 by the sequel A Rake’s Progress showing in eight pictures the reckless life of Tom Rakewell, the son of a rich merchant, who wastes all his money on luxurious living, whoring, and gambling, and ultimately finishes his life in Bedlam. The original paintings of A Harlot’s Progress were destroyed in the fire at Fonthill Abbey in 1755; A Rake’s Progress is displayed in the gallery room at Sir John Soane’s Museum, London.

In 1743–1745 Hogarth painted the six pictures of Marriage à-la-mode (National Gallery, London), a pointed skewering of upper class 18th century society. This moralistic warning shows the miserable tragedy of an ill-considered marriage for money. This is regarded by many as his finest project and may be among his best planned story serials.

Marital ethics were the topic of much debate in 18th century Britain. Frequent marriages of convenience and their attendant unhappiness came in for particular criticism, with a variety of authors taking the view that love was a much sounder basis for marriage. Hogarth here painted a satire – a genre that by definition has a moral point to convey – of a conventional marriage within the English upper class. All the paintings were engraved and the series achieved wide circulation in print form. The series, which are set in a Classical interior, shows the story of the fashionable marriage of the son of bankrupt Earl Squanderfield to the daughter of a wealthy but miserly city merchant, starting with the signing of a marriage contract at the Earl’s mansion and ending with the murder of the son by his wife’s lover and the suicide of the daughter after her lover is hanged at Tyburn for murdering her husband.

William Makepeace Thackeray wrote:

This famous set of pictures contains the most important and highly wrought of the Hogarth comedies. The care and method with which the moral grounds of these pictures are laid is as remarkable as the wit and skill of the observing and dexterous artist. He has to describe the negotiations for a marriage pending between the daughter of a rich citizen Alderman and young Lord Viscount Squanderfield, the dissipated son of a gouty old Earl … The dismal end is known. My lord draws upon the counselor, who kills him, and is apprehended while endeavouring to escape. My lady goes back perforce to the Alderman of the City, and faints upon reading Counsellor Silvertongue’s dying speech at Tyburn (place of execution in old London), where the counselor has been executed for sending his lordship out of the world. Moral: don’t listen to evil silver-tongued counselors; don’t marry a man for his rank, or a woman for her money; don’t frequent foolish auctions and masquerade balls unknown to your husband; don’t have wicked companions abroad and neglect your wife, otherwise you will be run through the body, and ruin will ensue, and disgrace, and Tyburn.

Hogarth’s work were a direct influence on John Collier, who was known as the “Lancashire Hogarth”. The spread of Hogarth’s prints throughout Europe, together with the depiction of popular scenes from his prints in faked Hogarth prints, influenced Continental book illustration through the 18th and early 19th century, especially in Germany and France. He also influenced many caricaturists of the eighteenth, nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Hogarth’s influence lives on today as artists continue to draw inspiration from the artist.

Masters of Art: William Hogarth (1697   1764)   William Hogarth Marriage à la Mode

William Hogarth – Marriage à la Mode

Hogarth’s paintings and prints have provided the subject matter for several other works. For example, Gavin Gordon’s 1935 ballet The Rake’s Progress, to choreography by Ninette de Valois, was based directly on Hogarth’s series of paintings of that title. Igor Stravinsky’s 1951 opera The Rake’s Progress, with libretto by W. H. Auden, was less literally inspired by the same series. Russell Banks’ short story “Indisposed” is a fictional account of Hogarth’s infidelity as told from the viewpoint of his wife, Jane. Hogarth’s engravings also inspired the BBC radio play “The Midnight House” by Jonathan Hall, based on the M.R. James ghost story “The Mezzotint” and first broadcast on BBC Radio 4 in 2006.

Hogarth’s House in Chiswick, west London, is now a museum; it abuts one of London’s best known road junctions – the Hogarth Roundabout.

Hogarth is played by Toby Jones in the 2006 television film A Harlot’s Progress.

Masters of Art: William Hogarth (1697   1764)   William Hogarth The Strode Family

William Hogarth – The Strode Family

Masters of Art: William Hogarth (1697   1764)   William Hogarth Marriage à la Mode2

William Hogarth – Marriage à la Mode2

Masters of Art: William Hogarth (1697   1764)   William Hogarth Portrait of a Young Woman

William Hogarth – Portrait of a Young Woman

Masters of Art: William Hogarth (1697   1764)   William Hogarth Portrait of Mary Edwards

William Hogarth – Portrait of Mary Edwards

Masters of Art: William Hogarth (1697   1764)   William Hogarth Soliciting Votes

William Hogarth – Soliciting Votes

Masters of Art: William Hogarth (1697   1764)   William Hogarth The Marriage of Stephen Beckingham and Mary Cox

William Hogarth – The Marriage of Stephen Beckingham and Mary Cox

Masters of Art: William Hogarth (1697   1764)   William Hogarth The Orgy

William Hogarth – The Orgy

Masters of Art: William Hogarth (1697   1764)   William Hogarth The Shrimp Girl

William Hogarth – The Shrimp Girl

 

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Thomas Gainsborough - Conversation in a Park

Life and Paintings of Thomas Gainsborough (1727 – 1788)

Thomas Gainsborough (christened 14 May 1727 – 2 August 1788) was an English portrait and landscape painter.

Movements: Academicism, Naturalism

Thomas Gainsborough was born in Sudbury, Suffolk, the youngest son of John Gainsborough, a weaver and maker of woolen goods, and the sister of the Reverend Humphry Burroughs. At the age of thirteen he impressed his father with his penciling skills so that he let him go to London to study art in 1740. In London he first trained under engraver Hubert Gravelot but eventually became associated with William Hogarth and his school. He assisted Francis Hayman in the decoration of the supper boxes at Vauxhall Gardens, and contributed to the decoration of what is now the Thomas Coram Foundation for Children.

In 1746, Gainsborough married Margaret Burr, an illegitimate daughter of the Duke of Beaufort, who settled a £200 annuity on the couple. The artist’s work, then mainly composed of landscape paintings, was not selling very well. He returned to Sudbury in 1748–1749 and concentrated on the painting of portraits.

Life and Paintings of Thomas Gainsborough (1727   1788)   Thomas Gainsborough Johann Christian Bach

Thomas Gainsborough – Johann Christian Bach

In 1752, he and his family, now including two daughters, moved to Ipswich. Commissions for personal portraits increased, but his clientele included mainly local merchants and squires. He had to borrow against his wife’s annuity.

In 1759, Gainsborough and his family moved to Bath, living at number 17 The Circus.  There, he studied portraits by van Dyck and was eventually able to attract a fashionable clientele. In 1761, he began to send work to the Society of Arts exhibition in London (now the Royal Society of Arts, of which he was one of the earliest members); and from 1769 on, he submitted works to the Royal Academy’s annual exhibitions. He selected portraits of well-known or notorious clients in order to attract attention. These exhibitions helped him acquire a national reputation, and he was invited to become one of the founding members of the Royal Academy in 1769. His relationship with the academy, however, was not an easy one and he stopped exhibiting his paintings there in 1773.

Life and Paintings of Thomas Gainsborough (1727   1788)   Thomas Gainsborough The Artists Wife

Thomas Gainsborough – The Artist’s Wife

In 1774, Gainsborough and his family moved to London to live in Schomberg House, Pall Mall. In 1777, he again began to exhibit his paintings at the Royal Academy, including portraits of contemporary celebrities, such as the Duke and Duchess of Cumberland. Exhibitions of his work continued for the next six years.

In 1780, he painted the portraits of King George III and his queen and afterwards received many royal commissions. This gave him some influence with the Academy and allowed him to dictate the manner in which he wished his work to be exhibited. However, in 1783, he removed his paintings from the forthcoming exhibition and transferred them to Schomberg House.

In 1784, royal painter Allan Ramsay died and the King was obliged to give the job to Gainsborough’s rival and Academy president, Joshua Reynolds. Gainsborough remained the Royal Family’s favourite painter, however. At his own express wish, he was buried at St. Anne’s Church, Kew, where the Family regularly worshipped.

In his later years, Gainsborough often painted relatively simple, ordinary landscapes. With Richard Wilson, he was one of the originators of the eighteenth-century British landscape school; though simultaneously, in conjunction with Sir Joshua Reynolds, he was the dominant British portraitist of the second half of the 18th century.

He died of cancer on 2 August 1788 at the age of 61 and is interred at St. Anne’s Church, Kew, Surrey (located on Kew Green). He is buried next to Francis Bauer, the famous botanical illustrator. As of 2011, an appeal is underway to pay the costs of restoration of his tomb.

Life and Paintings of Thomas Gainsborough (1727   1788)   Thomas Gainsborough Mr and Mrs Andrews

Thomas Gainsborough – Mr and Mrs Andrews

Gainsborough was noted for the speed with which he applied his paint, and he worked more from his observations of nature (and of human nature) than from any application of formal academic rules. The poetic sensibility of his paintings caused Constable to say, “On looking at them, we find tears in our eyes and know not what brings them.”

He himself said, “I’m sick of portraits, and wish very much to take my viol-da-gam and walk off to some sweet village, where I can paint landskips (sic) and enjoy the fag end of life in quietness and ease.

This likeness of landscapes is shown in the way he merged the figures of the portraits with the scenes behind them. His later work was characterised by a light palette and easy, economical strokes.

Life and Paintings of Thomas Gainsborough (1727   1788)   Thomas Gainsborough The Artists Daughters with a Cat

Thomas Gainsborough – The Artist’s Daughters with a Cat

His most famous works, such as Portrait of Mrs. Graham; Mary and Margaret: The Painter’s Daughters; William Hallett and His Wife Elizabeth, nee Stephen, known as The Morning Walk; and Cottage Girl with Dog and Pitcher, display the unique individuality of his subjects.

Gainsborough’s only known assistant was his nephew, Gainsborough Dupont. In the last year of his life he collaborated with John Hoppner in painting a full length portrait of Charlotte, Countess Talbot.

Life and Paintings of Thomas Gainsborough (1727   1788)   Thomas Gainsborough Mary Countess of Howe

Thomas Gainsborough – Mary, Countess of Howe

Life and Paintings of Thomas Gainsborough (1727   1788)   Thomas Gainsborough Isaac Henrique Sequeira

Thomas Gainsborough – Isaac Henrique Sequeira

Life and Paintings of Thomas Gainsborough (1727   1788)   Thomas Gainsborough Conversation in a Park

Thomas Gainsborough – Conversation in a Park

Life and Paintings of Thomas Gainsborough (1727   1788)   Thomas Gainsborough The Marsham Children

Thomas Gainsborough – The Marsham Children

Life and Paintings of Thomas Gainsborough (1727   1788)   Thomas Gainsborough Self Portrait

Thomas Gainsborough – Self-Portrait

Life and Paintings of Thomas Gainsborough (1727   1788)   Thomas Gainsborough Portrait of Sarah Buxton

Thomas Gainsborough – Portrait of Sarah Buxton

Life and Paintings of Thomas Gainsborough (1727   1788)   Thomas Gainsborough Portrait of a Lady in Blue

Thomas Gainsborough – Portrait of a Lady in Blue

Life and Paintings of Thomas Gainsborough (1727   1788)   Thomas Gainsborough Mrs. Mary Robinson

Thomas Gainsborough – Mrs. Mary Robinson

Life and Paintings of Thomas Gainsborough (1727   1788)   Thomas Gainsborough Mrs Sarah Siddons

Thomas Gainsborough – Mrs Sarah Siddons

Life and Paintings of Thomas Gainsborough (1727   1788)   Thomas Gainsborough Mrs Grace Dalrymple Elliot

Thomas Gainsborough – Mrs Grace Dalrymple Elliot

Life and Paintings of Thomas Gainsborough (1727   1788)   Thomas Gainsborough Mr and Mrs William Hallett

Thomas Gainsborough – Mr and Mrs William Hallett

Life and Paintings of Thomas Gainsborough (1727   1788)   Thomas Gainsborough Master John Heathcote

Thomas Gainsborough – Master John Heathcote

Life and Paintings of Thomas Gainsborough (1727   1788)   Thomas Gainsborough Lady Bate Dudley

Thomas Gainsborough – Lady Bate-Dudley

Life and Paintings of Thomas Gainsborough (1727   1788)   Thomas Gainsborough Lady Alston

Thomas Gainsborough – Lady Alston

 

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Jean-Honoré Fragonard - The Swing 3

Life and Paintings of Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732 – 1806)

Jean-Honoré Fragonard ( 5 April 1732 – 22 August 1806) was a French painter and printmaker whose late Rococo manner was distinguished by remarkable facility, exuberance, and hedonism. One of the most prolific artists active in the last decades of the Ancien Régime, Fragonard produced more than 550 paintings (not counting drawings and etchings), of which only five are dated. Among his most popular works are genre paintings conveying an atmosphere of intimacy and veiled eroticism.

Movements: Rococo

Jean-Honoré Fragonard was born at Grasse, Alpes-Maritimes, the son of François Fragonard, a glover, and Françoise Petit. He was articled to a Paris notary when his father’s circumstances became strained through unsuccessful speculations, but showed such talent and inclination for art that he was taken at the age of eighteen to François Boucher, who, recognizing the youth’s rare gifts but disinclined to waste his time with one so inexperienced, sent him to Chardin’s atelier. Fragonard studied for six months under the great luminist, then returned more fully equipped to Boucher, whose style he soon acquired so completely that the master entrusted him with the execution of replicas of his paintings.

Life and Paintings of Jean Honoré Fragonard (1732   1806)   Jean Honoré Fragonard Jeroboam Offering Sacrifice for the Idol

Jean-Honoré Fragonard – Jeroboam Offering Sacrifice for the Idol

Though not yet a pupil of the Academy, Fragonard gained the Prix de Rome in 1752 with a painting of “Jeroboam Sacrificing to the Golden Calf”, but before proceeding to Rome he continued to study for three years under Charles-André van Loo. In the year preceding his departure he painted the “Christ washing the Feet of the Apostles” now at Grasse cathedral. On 17 September 1756, he took up his abode at the French Academy in Rome, then presided over by Charles-Joseph Natoire.

Life and Paintings of Jean Honoré Fragonard (1732   1806)   Jean Honoré Fragonard The Swing

Jean-Honoré Fragonard – The Swing

While at Rome, Fragonard contracted a friendship with a fellow painter, Hubert Robert. In 1760, they toured Italy together, executing numerous sketches of local scenery. It was in these romantic gardens, with their fountains, grottos, temples and terraces, that Fragonard conceived the dreams which he was subsequently to render in his art. He also learned to admire the masters of the Dutch and Flemish schools (Rubens, Hals, Rembrandt, Ruisdael), imitating their loose and vigorous brushstrokes. Added to this influence was the deep impression made upon his mind by the florid sumptuousness of Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, whose works he had an opportunity to study in Venice before he returned to Paris in 1761.

Life and Paintings of Jean Honoré Fragonard (1732   1806)   Jean Honoré Fragonard The Bathers

Jean-Honoré Fragonard – The Bathers

In 1765, his “Coresus et Callirhoe” secured his admission to the Academy. It was made the subject of a pompous (though not wholly serious) eulogy by Diderot, and was bought by the king, who had it reproduced at the Gobelins factory. Hitherto Fragonard had hesitated between religious, classic and other subjects; but now the demand of the wealthy art patrons of Louis XV‘s pleasure-loving and licentious court turned him definitely towards those scenes of love and voluptuousness with which his name will ever be associated, and which are only made acceptable by the tender beauty of his color and the virtuosity of his facile brushwork; such works include the Blind man’s bluff, Serment d’amour (Love Vow), Le Verrou (The Bolt), La Culbute (The Tumble), La Chemise enlevée (The Shirt Removed), and L’escarpolette (The Swing, Wallace Collection), and his decorations for the apartments of Mme du Barry and the dancer Madeleine Guimard.

Life and Paintings of Jean Honoré Fragonard (1732   1806)   Jean Honoré Fragonard The Swing 2

Jean-Honoré Fragonard – The Swing 2

A lukewarm response to these series of ambitious works induced Fragonard to abandon Rococo and to experiment with Neoclassicism. He married Marie-Anne Gérard, herself a painter of miniatures, (1745–1823) on 17 June 1769 and had a daughter, Rosalie Fragonard (1769–1788), who became one of his favourite models. In October 1773, he again went to Italy with Pierre-Jacques Onézyme Bergeret de Grancourt and his son, Pierre-Jacques Bergeret de Grancourt. In September 1774, he returned through Vienna, Prague, Dresden, Frankfurt and Strasbourg.

Life and Paintings of Jean Honoré Fragonard (1732   1806)   Jean Honoré Fragonard The Musical Contest

Jean-Honoré Fragonard – The Musical Contest

Back in Paris, Marguerite Gérard, his wife’s 14-year-old sister, became his pupil and assistant in 1778. In 1780, he had a son, Alexandre-Évariste Fragonard (1780–1850), who eventually became a talented painter and sculptor. The French Revolution deprived Fragonard of his private patrons: they were either guillotined or exiled. The neglected painter deemed it prudent to leave Paris in 1793 and found shelter in the house of his friend Maubert at Grasse, which he decorated with the series of decorative panels known as the Les progrès de l’amour dans le cœur d’une jeune fille, originally painted for Château du Barry.

Life and Paintings of Jean Honoré Fragonard (1732   1806)   Jean Honoré Fragonard The Swing 3

Jean-Honoré Fragonard – The Swing 3

Jean-Honoré Fragonard returned to Paris early in the nineteenth century, where he died in 1806, almost completely forgotten.

For half a century or more he was so completely ignored that Lübke in his History of Art (1873) omits the very mention of his name. Subsequent re-evaluation has confirmed his position among the all-time masters of French painting. The influence of Fragonard’s handling of local colour and expressive, confident brush-stroke on the Impressionists (particularly his grand niece, Berthe Morisot, and Renoir) cannot be overestimated. Fragonard’s paintings Alongside those of François Boucher, seem to sum up an era.

 

Life and Paintings of Jean Honoré Fragonard (1732   1806)   Jean Honoré Fragonard The Stolen Kiss

Jean-Honoré Fragonard – The Stolen Kiss

 

Life and Paintings of Jean Honoré Fragonard (1732   1806)   Jean Honoré Fragonard The Love Letter

Jean-Honoré Fragonard – The Love Letter

Life and Paintings of Jean Honoré Fragonard (1732   1806)   Jean Honoré Fragonard Psyche Showing Her Sisters Her Gifts from Cupid

Jean-Honoré Fragonard – Psyche Showing Her Sisters Her Gifts from Cupid

Life and Paintings of Jean Honoré Fragonard (1732   1806)   Jean Honoré Fragonard Progress of Love the pursuit

Jean-Honoré Fragonard – Progress of Love the pursuit

Life and Paintings of Jean Honoré Fragonard (1732   1806)   Jean Honoré Fragonard Progress of Love The Meeting

Jean-Honoré Fragonard – Progress of Love The Meeting

Life and Paintings of Jean Honoré Fragonard (1732   1806)   Jean Honoré Fragonard Progress of Love The Lover Crowned

Jean-Honoré Fragonard – Progress of Love The Lover Crowned

Life and Paintings of Jean Honoré Fragonard (1732   1806)   Jean Honoré Fragonard Progress of Love The Confession of Love

Jean-Honoré Fragonard – Progress of Love The Confession of Love

Life and Paintings of Jean Honoré Fragonard (1732   1806)   Jean Honoré Fragonard Night Scene

Jean-Honoré Fragonard – Night Scene

Life and Paintings of Jean Honoré Fragonard (1732   1806)   Jean Honoré Fragonard Music Lesson

Jean-Honoré Fragonard – Music Lesson

Life and Paintings of Jean Honoré Fragonard (1732   1806)   Jean Honoré Fragonard Diana and Endymion

Jean-Honoré Fragonard – Diana and Endymion

Life and Paintings of Jean Honoré Fragonard (1732   1806)   Jean Honoré Fragonard Coresus Sacrificing himself to Save Callirhoe

Jean-Honoré Fragonard – Coresus Sacrificing himself to Save Callirhoe

Life and Paintings of Jean Honoré Fragonard (1732   1806)   Jean Honoré Fragonard Adoration of the Shepherds

Jean-Honoré Fragonard – Adoration of the Shepherds

Life and Paintings of Jean Honoré Fragonard (1732   1806)   Jean Honoré Fragonard A Young Scholar

Jean-Honoré Fragonard – A Young Scholar

Life and Paintings of Jean Honoré Fragonard (1732   1806)   Jean Honoré Fragonard A Game of Hot Cockles

Jean-Honoré Fragonard – A Game of Hot Cockles

Life and Paintings of Jean Honoré Fragonard (1732   1806)   Jean Honoré Fragonard A Game of Horse and Rider

Jean-Honoré Fragonard – A Game of Horse and Rider

Life and Paintings of Jean Honoré Fragonard (1732   1806)   Jean Honoré Fragonard The Visit to the Nursery

Jean-Honoré Fragonard – The Visit to the Nursery

 

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Francisco Goya - Dance of the Majos at the Banks of Manzanares

Life and Paintings of Francisco Goya (1746 – 1828)

Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (30 March 1746–16 April 1828) was a Spanish romantic painter and printmaker regarded both as the last of the Old Masters and the first of the moderns. Goya was a court painter to the Spanish Crown, and through his works was both a commentator on and chronicler of his era. The subversive and imaginative element in his art, as well as his bold handling of paint, provided a model for the work of later generations of artists, notably Manet, Picasso and Francis Bacon.. In his honour, Spain’s main national film awards are called the Goya Awards.

Movements: Romanticism

Artemisia Gentileschi - Susanna and the Elders

Life and Paintings of Artemisia Gentileschi (1593 – 1652)

Artemisia Gentileschi (July 8, 1593–1652) was an Italian Baroque painter, today considered one of the most accomplished painters in the generation after Caravaggio. In an era when women painters were not easily accepted by the artistic community or patrons, she was the first female painter to become a member of the Accademia di Arte del Disegno in Florence.

Movements: Baroque, Caravaggism

She painted many pictures of strong and suffering women from myth and the Bible – victims, suicides, warriors – and made a speciality of the Judith story. Her best-known image, Judith Beheading Holofernes shows the decapitation of Holofernes, a scene of horrific struggle and blood-letting.”

Life and Paintings of Artemisia Gentileschi (1593   1652)   Artemisia Gentileschi Judith Beheading Holofernes

Artemisia Gentileschi – Judith Beheading Holofernes

That she was a woman painting in the 17th century and that she was raped herself and participated in prosecuting the rapist long overshadowed her achievements as an artist. For many years she was regarded as a curiosity. Today she is regarded as one of the most progressive and expressionist painters of her generation, a major artist in her own right.

Artemisia Gentileschi was born in Rome on 8 July 1593, the eldest child of the Tuscan painter Orazio Gentileschi. Artemisia was introduced to painting in her father’s workshop, showing much more talent than her brothers, who worked alongside her. She learned drawing, how to mix color and how to paint. Since her father’s style took inspiration from Caravaggio during that period, her style was just as heavily influenced in turn. But her approach to subject matter was different from her father’s, as her paintings are highly naturalistic, where Orazio’s are idealized. Orazio was a great encouragement to his daughter since, during the 17th century, women were considered not to have the intelligence to work.

At the same time, Artemisia had to resist the “traditional attitude and psychological submission to this brainwashing and jealousy of her obvious talent” (Bissell, 113). By doing so, she gained great respect and recognition for her work.

Life and Paintings of Artemisia Gentileschi (1593   1652)   Artemisia Gentileschi Susanna and the Elders

Artemisia Gentileschi – Susanna and the Elders

The first work of the young 17-year-old Artemisia (some at the time suspected that she was helped by her father) was the Susanna e i Vecchioni (Susanna and the Elders) (1610, Schönborn collection in Pommersfelden). The picture shows how Artemisia assimilated the realism of Caravaggio without being indifferent to the language of the Bologna school (which had Annibale Carracci among its major artists). It is one of the few Susanna paintings showing the sexual assault by the two Elders as a traumatic event.

In 1611, her father was working with Agostino Tassi to decorate the vaults of Casino della Rose inside the Pallavicini Rospigliosi Palace in Rome, so Orazio hired the painter to tutor his daughter privately.

During this tutelage, Tassi raped Artemisia. Another man, Cosimo Quorlis had helped Tassi with the rape. After the initial rape, Artemisia continued to have sexual relations with Tassi, with the expectation that they were going to be married. However, Tassi reneged on his promise to marry Artemisia after he heard the rumour that she was having an affair with another man. Orazio pressed charges against Tassi after he learned that Artemisia and Tassi were not going to be married (nine months after the rape). Orazio also claimed that Tassi stole a painting of Judith from the Gentileschi household. The major issue of this trial was the fact that Tassi had deflowered Artemisia. If Artemisia had not been a virgin before Tassi raped her, the Gentileschis would not have been able to press charges. In the ensuing seven-month trial, it was discovered that Tassi had planned to murder his wife, had enjoined in adultery with his sister-in-law and planned to steal some of Orazio’s paintings. During the trial, Artemisia was given a gynecological examination and was tortured using thumbscrews.

At the end of the trial Tassi was sentenced to imprisonment for one year, although he never served the time. The trial has influenced the feminist view of Artemisia Gentileschi during the late 20th century.

The painting Giuditta che decapita Oloferne (Judith beheading Holofernes) (1612–1613), displayed in the Capodimonte Museum of Naples, is striking for the violence portrayed. A month later, Orazio arranged for his daughter to marry Pierantonio Stiattesi, a modest artist from Florence. Shortly afterwards the couple moved to Florence, where Artemisia received a commission for a painting at Casa Buonarroti and became a successful court painter, enjoying the patronage of the Medici family and Charles I. It has been proposed that during this period Artemisia also painted the Madonna col Bambino (The Virgin and Child), currently in the Spada Gallery, Rome.

Life and Paintings of Artemisia Gentileschi (1593   1652)   Artemisia Gentileschi Judith Beheading Holofernes 2

Artemisia Gentileschi – Judith Beheading Holofernes 2

In Florence, Artemisia enjoyed huge success. She was the first woman accepted into the Accademia delle Arti del Disegno (Academy of the Arts of Drawing). She maintained good relations with the most respected artists of her time, such as Cristofano Allori, and was able to garner the favours and the protection of influential people, starting with Granduke Cosimo II de’ Medici and especially of the Granduchess Cristina. She had a good relationship with Galileo Galilei with whom she remained in epistolary contact for a long time. She was esteemed by Michelangelo Buonarroti the younger (nephew of the great Michelangelo): busy with construction of Casa Buonarroti to celebrate his notable relative, he asked Artemisia to produce a painting to decorate the ceiling of the gallery of paintings.

Artemisia arrived in Rome the same year her father Orazio departed for Genoa. Some believe that Artemisia followed her father there; while there is not enough evidence for this, this time together would have accentuated the similarity of their styles, which makes it often difficult today to determine which of the two painted certain works. Most of the evidence supports the notion that Artemisia remained in Rome, trying to find a home and raise her daughters. In addition to Prudenzia (born from the marriage with Pierantonio Stiattesi) she had another natural daughter, probably born in 1627. Artemisia tried, with almost no success, to teach them the art of painting.

Life and Paintings of Artemisia Gentileschi (1593   1652)   Artemisia Gentileschi Bathsheba

Artemisia Gentileschi – Bathsheba

Caravaggio’s style, though the master had been dead over a decade, was still highly influential and converted many painters to his style (the so-called Caravaggisti) such as Artemisia’s father Orazio, Carlo Saraceni (who returned to Venice 1620), Bartolomeo Manfredi, and Simon Vouet. However, painting styles in Rome during the early 17th century were diverse, a more classic manner of the Bolognese disciples of the Carracci and the baroque style of Pietro da Cortona.

It appears that Artemisia was also associated the Academy of the Desiosi. She was celebrated with a portrait carrying the inscription “Pincturare miraculum invidendum facilius quam imitandum”. In the same period she became friends with Cassiano dal Pozzo, a humanist, collector and lover of arts. However, despite her artistic reputation, her strong personality and her numerous good relationships, Rome was not as lucrative as she hoped. Her style and tone of defiance and strength relaxed: she painted more relaxing and feminine works. For instance, her second version of Susanna and the Elders (1622)

The appreciation of her art was narrowed down to portraits and to her ability with biblical heroines: she received none of the lucrative commissions for altarpieces. The absence of sufficient documentation makes it difficult to follow Artemisia’s movements in this period. It is certain that between 1627 and as late as 1630 she moved to Venice, perhaps in search of richer commissions, as verses and letters were composed in appreciation of her and her works in Venice.

In 1638 Artemisia joined her father in London at the court of Charles I of England, where Orazio became court painter and received the important job of decorating a ceiling (allegory of Trionfo della pace e delle Arti (Triumph of the peace and the Arts) in the Casa delle Delizie of Queen Henrietta Maria of France in Greenwich). Father and daughter were once again working together, although helping her father was probably not her only reason for travelling to London: Charles I had convoked her in his court, and it was not possible to refuse. Charles I was a fanatical collector, willing to ruin public finances to follow his artistic wishes. The fame of Artemisia probably intrigued him, and it is not a coincidence that his collection included a painting of great suggestion, the Autoritratto in veste di Pittura (“Self-Portrait as the Allegory of Painting.”).

Orazio suddenly died in 1639. Artemisia had her own commissions to fulfill after her father’s death, although there are no known works assignable with certainty to this period. It is known that Artemisia had already left England by 1642, when the civil war was just starting. Nothing much is known about her subsequent movements. Historians know that in 1649 she was in Naples again, corresponding with Don Antonio Ruffo of Sicily who became her mentor and good commitment during this second Neapolitan period. The last known letter to her mentor is dated 1650 and makes clear that she was still fully active. Artemisia was once thought to have died in 1652/1653. Recent evidence, however, has shown that she was still accepting commissions in 1654—though increasingly dependent on her assistant, Onofrio Palumbo. Thus it might be speculated that she died in the devastating plague that swept Naples in 1656 and virtually wiped out an entire generation of Neapolitan artists.

Let’s now enjoy some of her most celebrated works:

Life and Paintings of Artemisia Gentileschi (1593   1652)   Artemisia Gentileschi Danaë

Artemisia Gentileschi – Danaë

Life and Paintings of Artemisia Gentileschi (1593   1652)   Artemisia Gentileschi Clio the Muse of History

Artemisia Gentileschi – Clio, the Muse of History

Life and Paintings of Artemisia Gentileschi (1593   1652)   Artemisia Gentileschi Birth of St John the Baptist

Artemisia Gentileschi – Birth of St John the Baptist

Life and Paintings of Artemisia Gentileschi (1593   1652)   Artemisia Gentileschi St Cecilia Playing a Lute

Artemisia Gentileschi – St Cecilia Playing a Lute

Life and Paintings of Artemisia Gentileschi (1593   1652)   Artemisia Gentileschi St Catherine of Alexandria

Artemisia Gentileschi – St Catherine of Alexandria

Life and Paintings of Artemisia Gentileschi (1593   1652)   Artemisia Gentileschi Portrait of a Condottiero

Artemisia Gentileschi – Portrait of a Condottiero

Life and Paintings of Artemisia Gentileschi (1593   1652)   Artemisia Gentileschi Judith and Her Maidservant

Artemisia Gentileschi – Judith and Her Maidservant

For a woman at the beginning of the 17th century, being a painter like Artemisia represented an uncommon and difficult choice, but not an exceptional one. Before Artemisia, between the end of the 1500 and the beginning of 1600 other female painters had successful careers, including Sofonisba Anguissola (Born in Cremona around 1530 – Palermo around 1625), was called into Spain by King Philip II and Lavinia Fontana (Bologna, 1552 – Rome 1614) departed for Rome by invitation of Pope Clement VIII. Later Fede Galizia (Milano or Trento, 1578 – Milano 1630) painted still lifes and a Judith with the head of Holofernes.

Other female painters began their career while Artemisia was alive. Judged on their artistic merits, Longhi’s statement that Artemisia was “the only woman in Italy who ever knew about painting” may be questioned, but there is no doubt that Artemisia continues to be among the most highly regarded of female artists, and has finally taken her place among the great artists of the Baroque.

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Articles’ Images are in the public domain because their copyright has expired, and are available through Wikimedia

This Articles’ text is licensed under the Creative Commons BY-SA License since it partially uses material from Wikipedia.

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres - Roger Freeing Angelica

Life and Paintings of Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1780 – 1867)

Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (29 August 1780 – 14 January 1867) was a French Neoclassical painter. Although he considered himself to be a painter of history in the tradition of Nicolas Poussin and Jacques-Louis David, by the end of his life it was Ingres’s portraits, both painted and drawn, that were recognized as his greatest legacy.

Movements: Classicism, Neoclassicism, Orientalism

Note: Some of Ingres’ paintings contain nudity. If it offends you, please don’t read the article!

A man profoundly respectful of the past, he assumed the role of a guardian of academic orthodoxy against the ascendant Romantic style represented by his nemesis Eugène Delacroix. His exemplars, he once explained, were “the great masters which flourished in that century of glorious memory when Raphael set the eternal and incontestable bounds of the sublime in art … I am thus a conservator of good doctrine, and not an innovator.”

Life and Paintings of Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1780   1867)   Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres The Grand Odalisque

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres – The Grand Odalisque

Nevertheless, modern opinion has tended to regard Ingres and the other Neoclassicists of his era as embodying the Romantic spirit of his time, while his expressive distortions of form and space make him an important precursor of modern art.

Ingres was born in Montauban, Tarn-et-Garonne, France, the first of seven children (five of whom survived infancy) of Jean-Marie-Joseph Ingres (1755–1814) and his wife Anne Moulet (1758–1817). His father was a successful jack-of-all-trades in the arts, a painter of miniatures, sculptor, decorative stonemason, and amateur musician; his mother was the nearly illiterate daughter of a master wigmaker.

From his father the young Ingres received early encouragement and instruction in drawing and music, and his first known drawing, a study after an antique cast, was made in 1789. Starting in 1786 he attended the local school École des Frères de l’Éducation Chrétienne, but his education was disrupted by the turmoil of the French Revolution, and the closing of the school in 1791 marked the end of his conventional education. The deficiency in his schooling would always remain for him a source of insecurity.

In 1791, Joseph Ingres took his son to Toulouse, where the young Jean-Auguste-Dominique was enrolled in the Académie Royale de Peinture, Sculpture et Architecture. There he studied under the sculptor Jean-Pierre Vigan, the landscape painter Jean Briant, and—most importantly—the painter Joseph Roques, who imparted to the young artist his veneration of Raphael.

Ingres’s musical talent was further developed under the tutelage of the violinist Lejeune. From the ages of thirteen to sixteen he was second violinist in the Orchestre du Capitole de Toulouse, and he would continue to play the violin as an avocation for the rest of his life.

Having been awarded first prize in drawing by the Academy, in August 1797 he traveled to Paris to study with Jacques-Louis David, France’s—and Europe’s—leading painter during the revolutionary period, in whose studio he remained for four years. Ingres followed his master’s neoclassical example but revealed, according to David, “a tendency toward exaggeration in his studies.”

He was admitted to the Painting Department of the École des Beaux-Arts in October 1799, and won, after tying for second place in 1800, theGrand Prix de Rome in 1801 for his Ambassadors of Agamemnon in the tent of Achilles. His trip to Rome, however, was postponed until 1806, when the financially strained government finally appropriated the travel funds.

Working in Paris alongside several other students of David in a studio provided by the state, he further developed a style that emphasized purity of contour. He found inspiration in the works of Raphael, in Etruscan vase paintings, and in the outline engravings of the English artist John Flaxman.

In 1802 he made his debut at the Salonwith Portrait of a Woman (the current whereabouts of which are unknown). The following year brought a prestigious commission, when Ingres was one of five artists selected (along with Jean-Baptiste Greuze, Robert Lefèvre, Charles Meynier, and Marie-Guillemine Benoist) to paint full-length portraits of Napoleon Bonaparte as First Consul. These were to be distributed to the prefectural towns of Liège, Antwerp, Dunkerque, Brussels, andGhent, all of which were newly ceded to France in the 1801 Treaty of Lunéville. As it is unlikely that Napoleon granted the artists a sitting, Ingres’ meticulously painted portrait of Bonaparte, First Consul appears to be modelled on an image of Napoleon painted by Antoine-Jean Gros in 1802.

In the summer of 1806 Ingres became engaged to Marie-Anne-Julie Forestier, a painter and musician, before leaving for Rome in September.

At the Salon, his paintings—Self-Portrait, portraits of the Rivière family, and Napoleon I on his Imperial Throne—produced a disturbing impression on the public, due to not only Ingres’s stylistic idiosyncrasies but also his adoption of Carolingian imagery in representing Napoleon.David delivered a severe judgement, and the critics were uniformly hostile, finding fault with the strange discordances of colour, the want of sculptural relief, the chilly precision of contour, and the self-consciously archaic quality. Chaussard (Le Pausanias Français, 1806) condemned Ingres’s style as gothic and asked: How, with so much talent, a line so flawless, an attention to detail so thorough, has M. Ingres succeeded in painting a bad picture? The answer is that he wanted to do something singular, something extraordinary … M. Ingres’s intention is nothing less than to make art regress by four centuries, to carry us back to its infancy, to revive the manner of Jean de Bruges.

As art historian Marjorie Cohn has written: “At the time, art history as a scholarly enquiry was brand-new. Artists and critics outdid each other in their attempts to identify, interpret, and exploit what they were just beginning to perceive as historical stylistic developments.”

The Louvre, newly filled with booty seized by Napoleon in his campaigns in Belgium, Holland, and Italy, provided French artists of the early 19th century with an unprecedented opportunity to study, compare, and copy masterworks from antiquity and from the entire history of European painting. From the beginning of his career, Ingres freely borrowed from earlier art, adopting the historical style appropriate to his subject, leading critics to charge him with plundering the past.

Newly arrived in Rome, Ingres read with mounting indignation the relentlessly negative press clippings sent to him from Paris by his friends. In letters to his prospective father-in-law, he expressed his outrage at the critics: “So the Salon is the scene of my disgrace; … The scoundrels, they waited until I was away to assassinate my reputation … I have never been so unhappy.”

He vowed never again to exhibit at the Salon, and his refusal to return to Paris led to the breaking up of his engagement. Julie Forestier, when asked years later why she had never married, responded, “When one has had the honor of being engaged to M. Ingres, one does not marry.”

Installed in a studio on the grounds of the Villa Medici, Ingres continued his studies and, as required of every winner of the Prix, he sent works at regular intervals to Paris so his progress could be judged. As his envoi of 1808 Ingres sent Oedipus and the Sphinx and The Valpinçon Bather (both now in the Louvre), hoping by these two paintings to demonstrate his mastery of the male and female nude, but they were poorly received.

In later years Ingres painted variants of both compositions; another nude begun in 1807, the Venus Anadyomene, remained in an unfinished state for decades, to be completed forty years later and finally exhibited in 1855.

He produced numerous portraits during this period: Madame Duvauçay, François-Marius Granet, Edme-François-Joseph Bochet, Madame Panckoucke, and that of Madame la Comtesse de Tournon, mother of the prefect of the department of the Tiber. In 1810 Ingres’s pension at the Villa Medici ended, but he decided to stay in Rome and seek patronage from the French occupation government.

Although facing uncertain prospects, in 1813 Ingres married a young woman, Madeleine Chapelle, who had been recommended to him by her friends in Rome. After a courtship carried out through correspondence, he proposed to her without having met her, and she accepted. Their marriage was a happy one, and Madame Ingres acquired a faith in her husband which enabled her to combat with courage and patience the difficulties of their common existence. He continued to suffer the indignity of disparaging reviews, as Don Pedro of Toledo Kissing the Sword of Henry IV, Raphael and the Fornarina (Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University), several portraits, and the Interior of the Sistine Chapel met a generally hostile critical response at the Paris Salon of 1814.

Ingres traveled to Naples in the spring of 1814 to paint Queen Caroline Murat, and the Murat family ordered additional portraits as well as three modestly scaled works: The Betrothal of Raphael, La Grande Odalisque, and Paolo and Francesca. Apart from theBetrothal, however, he never received payment for these paintings, due to the collapse of the Murat regime in 1815.

With the fall of Napoleon’s dynasty, he found himself essentially stranded in Rome without patronage. During this low point of his career, Ingres was forced to depend for his livelihood on the execution, in pencil, of small portrait drawings of the many tourists, in particular the English, passing through postwar Rome. For an artist who aspired to a reputation as a history painter, this seemed menial work, and to the visitors who knocked on his door asking, “Is this where the man who draws the little portraits lives?”, he would answer with irritation, “No, the man who lives here is a painter!”

Nevertheless, the portrait drawings he produced in such profusion during this period are of outstanding quality, and rank today among his most admired works.

Ingres and his wife moved to Florence in 1820 at the urging of the Florentine sculptor Lorenzo Bartolini, an old friend from his years in Paris, who hoped that Ingres would improve his position materially, but Ingres, as before, had to rely on his drawings of tourists and diplomats for support. His friendship with Bartolini, whose worldly success in the intervening years stood in sharp contrast to Ingres’s poverty, quickly became strained, and Ingres found new quarters.

In 1821 he finished a painting commissioned by a childhood friend, Monsieur de Pastoret, the Entry of Charles V into Paris; de Pastoret also ordered a portrait of himself and a religious work (Virgin with the Blue Veil). The major undertaking of this period, however, was a commission obtained in August 1820 with the help of de Pastoret, to paint the Vow of Louis XIII for the Cathedral of Montauban. Recognizing this as an opportunity to establish himself as a painter of history, he spent four diligent years bringing the large canvas to completion, and he travelled to Paris with it in October 1824.

The Vow of Louis XIII, exhibited at the Salon of 1824, finally brought Ingres critical success. Conceived in a Raphaelesque style relatively free of the archaisms for which he had been reproached in the past, it was admired even by strict Davidians. Ingres found himself celebrated throughout France; in January 1825 he was awarded the Cross of the Légion d’honneur, and in June 1825 he was elected to the Institute. His fame was extended further in 1826 by the publication of Sudre’s lithograph of La Grande Odalisque, which, having been scorned by artists and critics alike in 1819, now became widely popular.

A commission from the government called forth the monumental Apotheosis of Homer, which Ingres eagerly finished in a year’s time. From 1826 to 1834 the studio of Ingres was thronged, and he was a recognized chef d’école who taught with authority and wisdom while working steadily. The critics came to regard Ingres as the standard-bearer of classicism against the romantic school — a role he relished. The paintings, primarily portraits, that he sent to the Salon in 1827 and 1833 were well received. The portrait of Louis-François Bertin (1832) was a particular success with the public, who found its realism spellbinding, although some of the critics found its naturalism vulgar and its colouring drab.

The thin-skinned artist was outraged, however, by the criticism of his ambitious canvas of the Martyrdom of Saint Symphorien (cathedral ofAutun), shown in the Salon of 1834. Resentful and disgusted, Ingres resolved never again to work for the public, and gladly availed himself of the opportunity to return to Rome, as director of the École de France, in the room of Horace Vernet. There, although the time he spent in administrative duties slowed the flow of paintings from his brush, he executed Antiochus and Stratonice (executed for Louis-Philippe, duc d’Orléans), Portrait of Luigi Cherubini, and the Odalisque with Slave, among other works.

Life and Paintings of Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1780   1867)   Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres The Birth of the Last Muse

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres – The Birth of the Last Muse

One of only two works sent back to Paris during Ingres’ six year term as Director of the French Academy in Rome, the Stratonice was exhibited for several days in mid-August 1840 in the private apartment of the duc d’Orléans in the Pavilion Marsan of the Palais des Tuileries. While lampooned in Le Corsaire for its lofty subject matter yet extremely modest proportions (less than one metre across), overall the work was warmly received; so much so that on his return to Paris in June 1841, Ingres was received with all the deference that he felt was his due, including being received personally by King Louis-Philippe for a tour around Versailles. One of the first works executed after his return was a portrait of the duc d’Orléans, whose death in a carriage accident just weeks after the completion of the portrait sent the nation into mourning and led to orders for additional copies of the portrait.

The following year Ingres, at seventy-one years of age, married forty-three-year-old Delphine Ramel, a relative of his friend Marcotte d’Argenteuil. This marriage proved as happy as his first, and in the decade that followed Ingres completed several significant works. A major undertaking was the Apotheosis of Napoleon I, painted in 1853 for the ceiling of a hall in the Hôtel de Ville, Paris, and destroyed by fire in theCommune of 1871. The portrait of Princesse Albert de Broglie was also completed in 1853, and Joan of Arc appeared in 1854. The latter was largely the work of assistants, whom Ingres often entrusted with the execution of backgrounds. In 1855 Ingres consented to rescind his resolution, more or less strictly kept since 1834, in favour of the International Exhibition, where a room was reserved for his works.

The last of his important portrait paintings date from this period: Marie-Clothilde-Inés de Foucauld, Madame Moitessier, Seated (1856),Self-Portrait at the Age of Seventy-nine and Madame J.-A.-D. Ingres, née Delphine Ramel, both completed in 1859. The Turkish Bath, finished in a rectangular format in 1859, was revised in 1860 before being turned into a tondo. Ingres signed and dated it in 1862, although he made additional revisions in 1863.

Artistic Style

Ingres’s style was formed early in life and changed comparatively little. His earliest drawings, such as the Portrait of a Man (3 July 1797, now in the Louvre) already show a suavity of outline and an extraordinary control of the parallel hatchings which model the forms. From the first, his paintings are characterized by a firmness of outline reflecting his often-quoted conviction that “drawing is the probity of art”.

He believed colour to be no more than an accessory to drawing, explaining: “Drawing is not just reproducing contours, it is not just the line; drawing is also the expression, the inner form, the composition, the modelling. See what is left after that. Drawing is seven eighths of what makes up painting.”

He abhorred the visible brushstroke and made no recourse to the shifting effects of colour and light on which the Romantic school depended; he preferred local colours only faintly modelled in light by half tones. “Ce que l’on sait,” he would repeat, “il faut le savoir l’épée à la main.” (“Whatever you know, you must know it with sword in hand.”) Ingres thus left himself without the means of producing the necessary unity of effect when dealing with crowded compositions, such as the Apotheosis of Homer and the Martyrdom of Saint Symphorien. Among Ingres’s historical and mythological paintings, the most satisfactory are usually those depicting one or two figures. InOedipus, Half-Length Bather, Odalisque, and The Spring, subjects only animated by the consciousness of perfect physical well-being, we find Ingres at his best.

In Roger Freeing Angelica, the female figure shows the finest qualities of Ingres’s work, while the effigy of Roger flying to the rescue on his hippogriff sounds a jarring note, for Ingres was rarely successful in the depiction of movement and drama. As Sanford Schwartz has noted, the “historical, mythological, and religious pictures bespeak huge amounts of energy and industry, but, conveying little palpable sense of inner tension, are costume dramas … The faces in the history pictures are essentially those of models waiting for the session to be over. When an emotion is to be expressed, it comes across stridently, or woodenly.”

Ingres’s choice of subjects reflected his literary tastes, which were severely limited: he read and reread Homer, Virgil, Plutarch, Dante, histories, and the lives of the artists. Throughout his life he revisited a small number of favourite themes, and painted multiple versions of many of his major compositions.He did not share his age’s enthusiasm for battle scenes, and generally preferred to depict “moments of revelation or intimate decision manifested by meeting or confrontation, but never by violence.” His numerous odalisque paintings were influenced to a great extent by the writings of Mary Wortley Montagu, the wife of the ambassador to Turkey whose diaries and letters, when published, fascinated European society.

Although capable of painting quickly, he often laboured for years over a painting. The Spring, although dated 1856, was painted in 1821, except for the head and the extremities; those who knew the work in its incomplete state professed that the after-painting, necessary to fuse new and old, lacked the vigour and precision of touch that distinguished the original execution of the torso. Ingres’s pupil Amaury-Duval wrote of him: “With this facility of execution, one has trouble explaining why Ingres’ oeuvre is not still larger, but he scraped out [his work] frequently, never being satisfied … and perhaps this facility itself made him rework whatever dissatisfied him, certain that he had the power to repair the fault, and quickly, too.”

Ingres died of pneumonia on 17 January 1867, at the age of eighty-six, having preserved his faculties to the last. He is interred in thePère Lachaise Cemetery in Paris with a tomb sculpted by his student Jean-Marie Bonnassieux. The contents of his studio, including a number of major paintings, over 4000 drawings, and his violin, were bequeathed by the artist to the city museum of Montauban, now known as the Musée Ingres.

Life and Paintings of Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1780   1867)   Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres TheTurkish Bath

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres – TheTurkish Bath

 

Life and Paintings of Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1780   1867)   Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres The Apotheosis of Homer

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres – The Apotheosis of Homer

Life and Paintings of Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1780   1867)   Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres Roger Freeing Angelica

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres – Roger Freeing Angelica

Life and Paintings of Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1780   1867)   Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres Paolo and Francesca

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres – Paolo and Francesca

Life and Paintings of Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1780   1867)   Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres Oedipus and the Sphynx

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres – Oedipus and the Sphynx

Life and Paintings of Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1780   1867)   Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres Napoleon I on the Imperial Throne

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres – Napoleon I on the Imperial Throne

Life and Paintings of Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1780   1867)   Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres Monsieur Riviere

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres – Monsieur Riviere

Life and Paintings of Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1780   1867)   Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres Madame Moitessier

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres – Madame Moitessier

Life and Paintings of Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1780   1867)   Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres The Vow of Louis XIII

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres – The Vow of Louis XIII

Life and Paintings of Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1780   1867)   Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres The Source

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres – The Source

Life and Paintings of Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1780   1867)   Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres The Entry of the Future Charles V into Paris in 1358

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres – The Entry of the Future Charles V into Paris in 1358

Life and Paintings of Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1780   1867)   Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres The Dream of Ossian

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres – The Dream of Ossian

 

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Jean-Baptiste-Camille-Corot---Morning-at-Beauvais

Life and Paintings of Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot (1796 – 1875)

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot (July 16, 1796 – February 22, 1875) was a French landscape painter and printmaker in etching. Corot was the leading painter of the Barbizon school of France in the mid-nineteenth century. He is a pivotal figure in landscape painting and his vast output simultaneously references the Neo-Classical tradition and anticipates the plein-air innovations of Impressionism.

Movements: Naturalism, Classicism

Camille Corot was born in Paris in 1796, in a house at 125 Rue du Bac, now demolished. His family were bourgeois people—his father was a wigmaker and his mother a milliner—and unlike the experience of some of his artistic colleagues, throughout his life he never felt the want of money, as his parents made good investments and ran their businesses well.

Life and Paintings of Jean Baptiste Camille Corot (1796   1875)   Jean Baptiste Camille Corot Self Portrait

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot – Self-Portrait

After his parents married, they bought the millinery shop where his mother had worked and his father gave up his career as a wigmaker to run the business side of the shop. The store was a famous destination for fashionable Parisians and earned the family an excellent income. Corot was the second of three children born to the family, who lived above their shop during those years.
Corot received a scholarship to study at the Lycée Pierre-Corneille in Rouen, but left after having scholastic difficulties and entered a boarding school. He “was not a brilliant student, and throughout his entire school career he did not get a single nomination for a prize, not even for the drawing classes.”

Unlike many masters who demonstrated early talent and inclinations toward art, before 1815 Corot showed no such interest. During those years he lived with the Sennegon family, whose patriarch was a friend of Corot’s father and who spent much time with young Corot on nature walks. It was in this region that Corot made his first paintings after nature. At nineteen, Corot was a “big child, shy and awkward. He blushed when spoken to. Before the beautiful ladies who frequented his mother’s salon, he was embarrassed and fled like a wild thing… Emotionally, he was an affectionate and well-behaved son, who adored his mother and trembled when his father spoke.” When Corot’s parents moved into a new residence in 1817, the 21-year-old Corot moved into the dormer-windowed room on the third floor, which became his first studio as well.

With his father’s help he apprenticed to a draper, but he hated commercial life and despised what he called “business tricks”, yet he faithfully remained in the trade until he was 26, when his father consented to his adopting the profession of art. Later Corot stated, “I told my father that business and I were simply incompatible, and that I was getting a divorce.” The business experience proved beneficial, however, by helping him develop an aesthetic sense through his exposure to the colors and textures of the fabrics. Perhaps out of boredom, he turned to oil painting around 1821 and began immediately with landscapes.

Starting in 1822 after the death of his sister, Corot began receiving a yearly allowance of 1500 francs which adequately financed his new career, studio, materials, and travel for the rest of his life. He immediately rented a studio on quai Voltaire.
During the period when Corot acquired the means to devote himself to art, landscape painting was on the upswing and generally divided into two camps: one―historical landscape by Neoclassicists in Southern Europe representing idealized views of real and fancied sites peopled with ancient, mythological, and biblical figures; and two―realistic landscape, more common in Northern Europe, which was largely faithful to actual topography, architecture, and flora, and which often showed figures of peasants. In both approaches, landscape artists would typically begin with outdoor sketching and preliminary painting, with finishing work done indoors.

Highly influential upon French landscape artists in the early 19th century was the work of Englishmen John Constable and J.M.W. Turner, who reinforced the trend in favor of Realism and away from Neoclassicism.

For a short period between 1821–1822, Corot studied with Achille-Etna Michallon, a landscape painter of Corot’s age who was a protégé of the painter David and who was already a well-respected teacher. Michallon had a great influence on Corot’s career. Corot’s drawing lessons included tracing lithographs, copying three-dimensional forms, and making landscape sketches and paintings outdoors, especially in the forests of Fontainebleau, the seaports along Normandy, and the villages west of Paris such as Ville-d’Avray (where his parents had a country house).

Michallon also exposed him to the principles of the French Neoclassic tradition, as espoused in the famous treatise of theorist Pierre-Henri de Valenciennes, and exemplified in the works of French Neoclassicists Claude Lorrain and Nicolas Poussin, whose major aim was the representation of ideal Beauty in nature, linked with events in ancient times.

Though this school was on the decline, it still held sway in the Salon, the foremost art exhibition in France attended by thousands at each event. Corot later stated, “I made my first landscape from nature…under the eye of this painter, whose only advice was to render with the greatest scrupulousness everything I saw before me. The lesson worked; since then I have always treasured precision.”

Life and Paintings of Jean Baptiste Camille Corot (1796   1875)   Jean Baptiste Camille Corot Poetry

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot – Poetry

After Michallon’s early death in 1822, Corot studied with Michallon’s teacher, Jean-Victor Bertin, among the best known Neoclassic landscape painters in France, who had Corot draw copies of lithographs of botanical subjects to learn precise organic forms. Though holding Neoclassicists in the highest regard, Corot did not limit his training to their tradition of allegory set in imagined nature. His notebooks reveal precise renderings of tree trunks, rocks, and plants which show the influence of Northern realism. Throughout his career, Corot demonstrated an inclination to apply both traditions in his work, sometimes combining the two.

With his parents’ support, Corot followed the well-established pattern of French painters who went to Italy to study the masters of the Italian Renaissance and to draw the crumbling monuments of Roman antiquity. A condition by his parents before leaving was that he paint a self-portrait for them, his first. Corot’s stay in Italy from 1825 to 1828 was a highly formative and productive one, during which he completed over 200 drawings and 150 paintings.

He worked and traveled with several young French painters also studying abroad who painted together and socialized at night in the cafes, critiquing each other and gossiping. Corot learned little from the Renaissance masters (though later he cited Leonardo da Vinci as his favorite painter) and spent most of his time around Rome and in the Italian countryside.

The Farnese Gardens with its splendid views of the ancient ruins was a frequent destination, and he painted it at three different times of the day. The training was particularly valuable in gaining an understanding of the challenges of both the mid-range and panoramic perspective, and in effectively placing man-made structures in a natural setting.  He also learned how to give buildings and rocks the effect of volume and solidity with proper light and shadow, while using a smooth and thin technique. Furthermore, placing suitable figures in a secular setting was a necessity of good landscape painting, to add human context and scale, and it was even more important in allegorical landscapes. To that end Corot worked on figure studies in native costume as well as nude.

During winter, he spent time in a studio but returned to work outside as quickly as weather permitted. The intense light of Italy posed considerable challenges, “This sun gives off a light that makes me despair. It makes me feel the utter powerlessness of my palette.” He learned to master the light and to paint the stones and sky in subtle and dramatic variation.

It was not only Italian architecture and light which captured Corot’s attention. The late-blooming Corot was entranced with Italian females as well, “They still have the most beautiful women in the world that I have met….their eyes, their shoulders, their hands are spectacular. In that, they surpass our women, but on the other hand, they are not their equals in grace and kindness…Myself, as a painter I prefer the Italian woman, but I lean toward the French woman when it comes to emotion.”

In spite of his strong attraction to women, he writes of his commitment to painting, “I have only one goal in life that I want to pursue faithfully: to make landscapes. This firm resolution keeps me from a serious attachment. That is to say, in marriage…but my independent nature and my great need for serious study make me take the matter lightly.”

During the six-year period following his first Italian visit and his second, Corot focused on preparing large landscapes for presentation at the Salon. Several of his salon paintings were adaptations of his Italian oil sketches reworked in the studio by adding imagined, formal elements consistent with Neoclassical principles.  An example of this was his first Salon entry, View at Narni (1827), where he took his quick, natural study of a ruin of a Roman aqueduct in dusty bright sun and transformed it into a falsely idyllic pastoral setting with giant shade trees and green lawns, a conversion meant to appeal to the Neoclassical jurors.

Many critics have valued highly his plein-air Italian paintings for their “germ of Impressionism“, their faithfulness to natural light, and their avoidance of academic values, even though they were intended as studies.  Several decades later, Impressionism revolutionized art by a taking a similar approach—quick, spontaneous painting done in the out-of-doors; however, where the Impressionists used rapidly applied, un-mixed colors to capture light and mood, Corot usually mixed and blended his colors to get his dreamy effects.

 

Life and Paintings of Jean Baptiste Camille Corot (1796   1875)   Jean Baptiste Camille Corot The Reader Wreathed with Flowers Virgils Muse

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot – The Reader Wreathed with Flowers (Virgil’s Muse)

Life and Paintings of Jean Baptiste Camille Corot (1796   1875)   Jean Baptiste Camille Corot The Coliseum Seen from the Farnese Gardens

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot – The Coliseum Seen from the Farnese Gardens

Life and Paintings of Jean Baptiste Camille Corot (1796   1875)   Jean Baptiste Camille Corot The Cathedral of Chartres

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot – The Cathedral of Chartres

Life and Paintings of Jean Baptiste Camille Corot (1796   1875)   Jean Baptiste Camille Corot The bridge of Narni

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot – The bridge of Narni

Life and Paintings of Jean Baptiste Camille Corot (1796   1875)   Jean Baptiste Camille Corot The Artists Studio

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot – The Artist’s Studio

Life and Paintings of Jean Baptiste Camille Corot (1796   1875)   Jean Baptiste Camille Corot St Sebastian Succoured by Holy Women

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot – St Sebastian Succoured by Holy Women

Life and Paintings of Jean Baptiste Camille Corot (1796   1875)   Jean Baptiste Camille Corot Agostina

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot – Agostina

Life and Paintings of Jean Baptiste Camille Corot (1796   1875)   Jean Baptiste Camille Corot Young Woman in Pink Dress

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot – Young Woman in Pink Dress

Life and Paintings of Jean Baptiste Camille Corot (1796   1875)   Jean Baptiste Camille Corot Young Woman Madame Legois

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot – Young Woman (Madame Legois)

Life and Paintings of Jean Baptiste Camille Corot (1796   1875)   Jean Baptiste Camille Corot Volterra the Citadel

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot – Volterra, the Citadel

Life and Paintings of Jean Baptiste Camille Corot (1796   1875)   Jean Baptiste Camille Corot Ville dAvray

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot – Ville d’Avray

Life and Paintings of Jean Baptiste Camille Corot (1796   1875)   Jean Baptiste Camille Corot The Woman with the Pearl

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot – The Woman with the Pearl

Life and Paintings of Jean Baptiste Camille Corot (1796   1875)   Jean Baptiste Camille Corot The Tanneries of Mantes

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot – The Tanneries of Mantes

Life and Paintings of Jean Baptiste Camille Corot (1796   1875)   Jean Baptiste Camille Corot The Solitude. Recollection of Vigen Limousin

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot – The Solitude. Recollection of Vigen, Limousin

Corot was the leading painter of the Barbizon school of France in the mid-nineteenth century. He is a pivotal figure in landscape painting. His work simultaneously references the Neo-Classical tradition and anticipates the plein-air innovations of Impressionism. Of him Claude Monet exclaimed “There is only one master here—Corot. We are nothing compared to him, nothing.” His contributions to figure painting are hardly less important;Degas preferred his figures to his landscapes, and the classical figures of Picasso pay overt homage to Corot’s influence.

When out of the studio, Corot traveled throughout France, mirroring his Italian methods, and concentrated on rustic landscapes. He returned to the Normandy coast and to Rouen, the city he lived in as a youth.  Corot also did some portraits of friends and relatives, and received his first commissions. His sensitive portrait of his niece, Laure Sennegon, dressed in powder blue, was one of his most successful and was later donated to the Louvre.  He typically painted two copies of each family portrait, one for the subject and one for the family, and often made copies of his landscapes as well. Corot exhibited one portrait and several landscapes at the Salon in 1831 and 1833. His reception by the critics at the Salon was cold and Corot decided to return to Italy, having failed to satisfy them with his Neoclassical themes.

During his two return trips to Italy, he visited Northern Italy, Venice, and again the Roman countryside. In 1835, Corot created a sensation at the Salon with his biblical painting Agar dans le desert (Hagar in the Wilderness), which depicted Hagar, Sarah’s handmaiden, and the child Ishmael, dying of thirst in the desert until saved by an angel. The background was likely derived from an Italian study.

Life and Paintings of Jean Baptiste Camille Corot (1796   1875)   Jean Baptiste Camille Corot Peasants under the Trees at Dawn

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot – Peasants under the Trees at Dawn

This time, Corot’s unanticipated bold, fresh statement of the Neoclassical ideal succeeded with the critics by demonstrating “the harmony between the setting and the passion or suffering that the painter chooses to depict in it.”
He followed that up with other biblical and mythological subjects, but those paintings did not succeed as well, as the Salon critics found him wanting in comparisons with Poussin.In 1837, he painted his earliest surviving nude, The Nymph of the Seine. Later, he advised his students “The study of the nude, you see, is the best lesson that a landscape painter can have. If someone knows how, without any tricks, to get down a figure, he is able to make a landscape; otherwise he can never do it.”

In the 1860s, Corot was still mixing peasant figures with mythological ones, mixing Neoclassicism with Realism, causing one critic to lament, “If M. Corot would kill, once and for all, the nymphs of his woods and replace them with peasants, I should like him beyond measure.” In reality, in later life his human figures did increase and the nymphs did decrease, but even the human figures were often set in idyllic reveries.

In later life, Corot’s studio was filled with students, models, friends, collectors, and dealers who came and went under the tolerant eye of the master, causing him to quip, “Why is it that there are ten of you around me, and not one of you thinks to relight my pipe.”

Dealers snapped up his works and his prices were often above 4,000 francs per painting.With his success secured, Corot gave generously of his money and time. He became an elder of the artists’ community and would use his influence to gain commissions for other artists. In 1871 he gave £2000 for the poor of Paris, under siege by the Prussians. During the actual Paris Commune, he was at Arras with Alfred Robaut. In 1872 he bought a house in Auvers as a gift for Honoré Daumier, who by then was blind, without resources, and homeless. In 1875 he donated 10.000 francs to the widow of Millet in support of her children. His charity was near proverbial. He also financially supported the upkeep of a day center for children on rue Vandrezanne in Paris. In later life, he remained a humble and modest man, apolitical and happy with his luck in life, and held close the belief that, “men should not puff themselves up with pride, whether they are emperors adding this or that province to their empires or painter who gain a reputation.”

Life and Paintings of Jean Baptiste Camille Corot (1796   1875)   Jean Baptiste Camille Corot Morning at Beauvais

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot – Morning at Beauvais

Despite great success and appreciation among artists, collectors, and the more generous critics, his many friends considered, nevertheless, that he was officially neglected, and in 1874, a short time before his death, they presented him with a gold medal.He died in Paris of a stomach disorder aged 78 and was buried at Père Lachaise Cemetery.

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Théodore Géricault - The Wreck

Life and Paintings of Théodore Géricault (1791 – 1824)

Jean-Louis André Théodore Géricault (26 September 1791 – 26 January 1824) was a profoundly influential French artist, painter and lithographer, known for The Raft of the Medusa and other paintings. Although he died young, he became one of the pioneers of the Romantic movement.

Movements: Romanticism

Born in Rouen, France, Géricault was educated in the tradition of English sporting art by Carle Vernetand classical figure composition by Pierre-Narcisse Guérin, a rigorous classicist who disapproved of his student’s impulsive temperament yet recognized his talent.

Géricault soon left the classroom, choosing to study at the Louvre instead, where (from 1810 to 1815) he copied from paintings by Peter Paul Rubens, Titian, Diego Velázquez, and Rembrandt. During this period at the Louvre he discovered a vitality he found lacking in the prevailing school of Neoclassicism. Much of his time was spent in Versailles, where he found the stables of the palace open to him, and where he gained his knowledge of the anatomy and action of horses.

His first major work, The Charging Chasseur, exhibited at the Paris Salon of 1812, revealed the influence of the style of Rubens and an interest in the depiction of contemporary subject matter. This youthful success, ambitious and monumental, was followed by a change in direction: for the next several years Géricault produced a series of small studies of horses and cavalrymen.

Life and Paintings of Théodore Géricault (1791   1824)   Théodore Géricault The Wounded Officer of the Imperial Guard Leaving the Battlefield

Théodore Géricault – The Wounded Officer of the Imperial Guard Leaving the Battlefield

He exhibited Wounded Cuirassier at the Salon in 1814, a work more labored and less well received. Géricault in a fit of disappointment entered the army and served for a time in the garrison of Versailles. In the nearly two years that followed the 1814 Salon, he also underwent a self-imposed study of figure construction and composition, all the while evidencing a personal predilection for drama and expressive force.

A trip to Florence, Rome, and Naples (1816–17), prompted in part by the desire to flee from a romantic entanglement with his aunt, ignited a fascination with Michelangelo. Rome itself inspired the preparation of a monumental canvas, the Race of the Barberi Horses, a work of epic composition and abstracted theme that promised to be “entirely without parallel in its time”.

In the event, Géricault never completed the painting, and returned to France. In 1821, he painted The Derby of Epsom. Géricault continually returned to the military themes of his early paintings, and the series of lithographs he undertook on military subjects after his return from Italy are considered some of the earliest masterworks in that medium. Perhaps his most significant, and certainly most ambitious work, is The Raft of the Medusa (1818–1819), which depicted the aftermath of a contemporary French shipwreck, Meduse, in which the captain had left the crew and passengers to die.The incident became a national scandal, and Géricault’s dramatic interpretation presented a contemporary tragedy on a monumental scale. The painting’s notoriety stemmed from its indictment of a corrupt establishment, but it also dramatized a more eternal theme, that of man’s struggle with nature. It surely excited the imagination of the young Eugène Delacroix, who posed for one of the dying figures.

Life and Paintings of Théodore Géricault (1791   1824)   Théodore Géricault The Epsom Derby

Théodore Géricault – The Epsom Derby

The classical depiction of the figures and structure of the composition stand in contrast to the turbulence of the subject, and creates an important bridge between the styles of neo-classicismand romanticism. The painting fuses many influences: the Last Judgment of Michelangelo, the monumental approach to contemporary events by Antoine-Jean Gros, figure groupings by Henry Fuseli, and possibly the painting Watson and the Shark by John Singleton Copley.

The painting ignited political controversy when first exhibited at the Paris Salon of 1819; it then traveled to England in 1820, accompanied by Géricault himself, where it received much praise. While in London, Géricault witnessed urban poverty, made drawings of his impressions, and published lithographs based on these observations which were free of sentimentality.He associated much there with Charlet, the lithographer and caricaturist.

 

Life and Paintings of Théodore Géricault (1791   1824)   Théodore Géricault Riderless Racers at Rome

Théodore Géricault – Riderless Racers at Rome

Life and Paintings of Théodore Géricault (1791   1824)   Théodore Géricault Insane Woman

Théodore Géricault – Insane Woman

Life and Paintings of Théodore Géricault (1791   1824)   Théodore Géricault Study of a Head

Théodore Géricault – Study of a Head

Life and Paintings of Théodore Géricault (1791   1824)   Théodore Géricault Rideless Horse Races

Théodore Géricault – Rideless Horse Races

Life and Paintings of Théodore Géricault (1791   1824)   Théodore Géricault Portrait of a Kleptomaniac

Théodore Géricault – Portrait of a Kleptomaniac

Life and Paintings of Théodore Géricault (1791   1824)   Théodore Géricault Man with Delusions of Military Command

Théodore Géricault – Man with Delusions of Military Command

Life and Paintings of Théodore Géricault (1791   1824)   Théodore Géricault An Officer of the Chasseurs Commanding a Charge

Théodore Géricault – An Officer of the Chasseurs Commanding a Charge

Life and Paintings of Théodore Géricault (1791   1824)   Théodore Géricault The Wreck

Théodore Géricault – The Wreck

After his return to France in 1821, Géricault was inspired to paint a series of ten portraits of the insane, the patients of a friend, Dr. Étienne-Jean Georget, a pioneer in psychiatric medicine, with each subject exhibiting a different affliction.