Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore (Titian) - Perseus and Andromeda

Life and Paintings of Titian (1488 – 1576)

Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (c. 1488/1490 – 27 August 1576)  known in English as Titian, was an Italian painter, the most important member of the 16th-century Venetian school. He was born in Pieve di Cadore, near Belluno (in Veneto), in the Republic of Venice. During his lifetime he was often called da Cadore, taken from the place of his birth.

Movements: Renaissance, Naturalism, Classicism, Secularism

[Please note that Titian’s paintings contain nudity, if that offends you don’t read the article.]

Recognized by his contemporaries as “The Sun Amidst Small Stars” (recalling the famous final line of Dante’s Paradiso), Titian was one of the most versatile of Italian painters, equally adept with portraits, landscape backgrounds, and mythological and religious subjects. His painting methods, particularly in the application and use of color, would exercise a profound influence not only on painters of the Italian Renaissance, but on future generations of Western art.

Life and Paintings of Titian (1488   1576)   Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore Titian Allegory of Time Governed by Prudence

Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore (Titian) – Allegory of Time Governed by Prudence

During the course of his long life, Titian’s artistic manner changed drastically but he retained a lifelong interest in color. Although his mature works may not contain the vivid, luminous tints of his early pieces, their loose brushwork and subtlety of polychromatic modulations are without precedent in the history of Western art.

The exact date of Titian’s birth is uncertain; when he was an old man he claimed in a letter to Philip II to have been born in 1474, but this seems most unlikely. Other writers contemporary to his old age give figures which would equate to birthdates between 1473 to after 1482, but most modern scholars believe a date nearer 1490 is more likely; the Metropolitan Museum of Art’s timeline supports c.1488, as does the Getty Research Institute.

He was the eldest son of Gregorio Vecelli and his wife Lucia. His father was superintendent of the castle of Pieve di Cadore and managed local mines for their owners. Gregorio was also a distinguished councilor and soldier. Many relatives, including Titian’s grandfather, were notaries, and the family of four were well-established in the area, which was ruled by Venice.

Life and Paintings of Titian (1488   1576)   Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore Titian The Venus of Urbino 1024x712

Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore (Titian) – The Venus of Urbino

A fresco of Hercules on the Morosini Palace is said to have been one of Titian’s earliest works; others were the Bellini-esque so-called Gypsy Madonna in Vienna, and the Visitation of Mary and Elizabeth (from the convent of S. Andrea), now in the Accademia, Venice.

Titian joined Giorgione as an assistant, but many contemporary critics already found his work more impressive, for example in the exterior frescoes (now almost totally destroyed) that they did for the Fondaco dei Tedeschi (state-warehouse for the German merchants), and their relationship evidently had a significant element of rivalry. Distinguishing between their work at this period remains a subject of scholarly controversy, and there has been a substantial movement of attributions from Giorgione to Titian in the 20th century, with little traffic the other way. One of the earliest known works of Titian, Christ Carrying the Cross in the Scuola Grande di San Rocco, depicting the Ecce Homo scene, was long regarded as the work of Giorgione.

It took Titian two years (1516–1518) to complete his Assunta, whose dynamic three-tier composition and color scheme established him as the preeminent painter north of Rome.

During this period (1516–1530), which may be called the period of his mastery and maturity, the artist moved on from his early Giorgionesque style, undertook larger and more complex subjects and for the first time attempted a monumental style.

Giorgione died in 1510 and Giovanni Bellini in 1516, leaving Titian unrivaled in the Venetian School. For sixty years he was to be the undisputed master of Venetian painting. In 1516 he completed for the high altar of the church of the Frari, his famous masterpiece, the Assumption of the Virgin, still in situ. This extraordinary piece of colorism, executed on a grand scale rarely before seen in Italy, created a sensation.

The Signoria took note, and observed that Titian was neglecting his work in the hall of the great council, but in 1516 he succeeded his master Giovanni Bellini in receiving a pension from the Senate.

To this period belongs a more extraordinary work, The Death of St. Peter Martyr (1530), formerly in the Dominican Church of San Zanipolo, and destroyed by an Austrian shell in 1867. Only copies and engravings of this proto-Baroque picture remain; it combined extreme violence and a landscape, mostly consisting of a great tree, that pressed into the scene and seems to accentuate the drama in a way that looks forward to the Baroque.
During the next period (1530–1550), Titian developed the style introduced by his dramatic Death of St. Peter Martyr. The Venetian government, dissatisfied with Titian’s neglect of the work for the ducal palace, ordered him in 1538 to refund the money which he had received, and Pordenone, his rival of recent years, was installed in his place. However, at the end of a year Pordenone died, and Titian, who meanwhile applied himself diligently to painting in the hall the Battle of Cadore, was reinstated.

This major battle scene was lost along with so many other major works by Venetian artists by the great fire which destroyed all the old pictures in the great chambers of the Doge’s Palace in 1577. It represented in life-size the moment at which the Venetian general, D’Alviano attacked the enemy with horses and men crashing down into a stream, and was the artist’s most important attempt at a tumultuous and heroic scene of movement to rival Raphael’s Battle of Constantine and the equally ill-fated Battle of Cascina of Michelangelo and The Battle of Anghiari of Leonardo (both unfinished). There remains only a poor, incomplete copy at the Uffizi, and a mediocre engraving by Fontana.

Life and Paintings of Titian (1488   1576)   Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore Titian The Death of Actaeon

Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore (Titian) – The Death of Actaeon

Titian had from the beginning of his career shown himself to be a masterful portrait-painter, in works like La Bella (Eleanora de Gonzaga, Duchess of Urbino, at the Pitti Palace). He painted the likenesses of princes, or Doges, cardinals or monks, and artists or writers. “…no other painter was so successful in extracting from each physiognomy so many traits at once characteristic and beautiful”, according to The Catholic Encyclopedia. Among portrait-painters Titian is compared to Rembrandt and Velázquez, with the interior life of the former, and the clearness, certainty, and obviousness of the latter.

Let’s now enjoy some of his most celebrated works:

 

Life and Paintings of Titian (1488   1576)   Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore Titian Adam and Eve 786x1024

Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore (Titian) – Adam and Eve

Life and Paintings of Titian (1488   1576)   Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore Titian Portrait of Gerolamo Barbarigo

Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore (Titian) – Portrait of Gerolamo Barbarigo

Life and Paintings of Titian (1488   1576)   Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore Titian Sacred and Profane Love 1024x351

Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore (Titian) -Sacred and Profane Love

Life and Paintings of Titian (1488   1576)   Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore Titian Venus with a Mirror 859x1024

Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore (Titian) – Venus with a Mirror

Life and Paintings of Titian (1488   1576)   Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore Titian Venus and Cupid with an Organist 1024x538

Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore (Titian) – Venus and Cupid with an Organist

Life and Paintings of Titian (1488   1576)   Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore Titian Venus Anadyomene 761x1024

Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore (Titian) – Venus Anadyomene

Life and Paintings of Titian (1488   1576)   Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore Titian Tityus 896x1024

Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore (Titian) – Tityus

Life and Paintings of Titian (1488   1576)   Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore Titian The Worship of Venus 1024x1003

Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore (Titian) – The Worship of Venus

Life and Paintings of Titian (1488   1576)   Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore Titian The Three Ages of Man 1024x608

Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore (Titian) – The Three Ages of Man

Life and Paintings of Titian (1488   1576)   Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore Titian The Rape of Europa 1024x896

Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore (Titian) – The Rape of Europa

Life and Paintings of Titian (1488   1576)   Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore Titian The Birth of Adonis 1024x214

Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore (Titian) – The Birth of Adonis

Life and Paintings of Titian (1488   1576)   Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore Titian Spain Succouring Religion

Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore (Titian) – Spain Succouring Religion

Life and Paintings of Titian (1488   1576)   Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore Titian Philip II Offering Don Fernando to Victory 844x1024

Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore (Titian) – Philip II Offering Don Fernando to Victory

Life and Paintings of Titian (1488   1576)   Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore Titian Perseus and Andromeda 1024x921

Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore (Titian) – Perseus and Andromeda

Life and Paintings of Titian (1488   1576)   Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore Titian Orpheus and Eurydice 1024x731

Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore (Titian) – Orpheus and Eurydice

Life and Paintings of Titian (1488   1576)   Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore Titian Mocking of Christ 896x1024

Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore (Titian) – Mocking of Christ

Life and Paintings of Titian (1488   1576)   Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore Titian Diana and Callisto 1024x947

Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore (Titian) – Diana and Callisto

Life and Paintings of Titian (1488   1576)   Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore Titian Danae 1024x724

Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore (Titian) – Danae

Life and Paintings of Titian (1488   1576)   Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore Titian Bacchanal of the Andrians 1024x895

Tiziano Vecellio da Cadore (Titian) – Bacchanal of the Andrians

Titian’s unmatched handling of color is exemplified by his Danaë with Nursemaid, one of several mythological paintings, or “poesie” (“poems”) as the painter called them, done for Philip II of Spain. Although Michelangelo adjudged this piece deficient from the point of view of drawing, Titian and his studio produced several versions for other patrons.

Titian was probably in his late eighties when the plague raging in Venice took him on 27 August 1576. He was the only victim of the Venice plague to be given a church burial. He was interred in the Frari (Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari), as at first intended, and his Pietà was finished by Palma the Younger. He lies near his own famous painting, the Madonna di Ca’ Pesaro. No memorial marked his grave, until much later the Austrian rulers of Venice commissioned Canova to provide the large monument.

Immediately after Titian’s own death, his son and assistant Orazio died of the same epidemic. His sumptuous mansion was plundered during the plague by thieves.

 

Hope you enjoyed the article as much as i did compiling the info and the images! See you next time!
Articles’ Images are in the public domain because their copyright has expired, and are available through Wikimedia

This Articles’ text is licensed under the Creative Commons BY-SA License since it partially uses material from Wikipedia.

 

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