Théodore Géricault - The Wreck

Masters of Art: Théodore Géricault (1791 – 1824)

Jean-Louis André Théodore Géricault (26 September 1791 – 26 January 1824) was a profoundly influential French artist, painter and lithographer, known for The Raft of the Medusa and other paintings. Although he died young, he became one of the pioneers of the Romantic movement.

Movements: Romanticism

Born in Rouen, France, Géricault was educated in the tradition of English sporting art by Carle Vernetand classical figure composition by Pierre-Narcisse Guérin, a rigorous classicist who disapproved of his student’s impulsive temperament yet recognized his talent.

Géricault soon left the classroom, choosing to study at the Louvre instead, where (from 1810 to 1815) he copied from paintings by Peter Paul Rubens, Titian, Diego Velázquez, and Rembrandt. During this period at the Louvre he discovered a vitality he found lacking in the prevailing school of Neoclassicism. Much of his time was spent in Versailles, where he found the stables of the palace open to him, and where he gained his knowledge of the anatomy and action of horses.

His first major work, The Charging Chasseur, exhibited at the Paris Salon of 1812, revealed the influence of the style of Rubens and an interest in the depiction of contemporary subject matter. This youthful success, ambitious and monumental, was followed by a change in direction: for the next several years Géricault produced a series of small studies of horses and cavalrymen.

Masters of Art: Théodore Géricault (1791   1824)   Théodore Géricault The Wounded Officer of the Imperial Guard Leaving the Battlefield

Théodore Géricault – The Wounded Officer of the Imperial Guard Leaving the Battlefield

He exhibited Wounded Cuirassier at the Salon in 1814, a work more labored and less well received. Géricault in a fit of disappointment entered the army and served for a time in the garrison of Versailles. In the nearly two years that followed the 1814 Salon, he also underwent a self-imposed study of figure construction and composition, all the while evidencing a personal predilection for drama and expressive force.

A trip to Florence, Rome, and Naples (1816–17), prompted in part by the desire to flee from a romantic entanglement with his aunt, ignited a fascination with Michelangelo. Rome itself inspired the preparation of a monumental canvas, the Race of the Barberi Horses, a work of epic composition and abstracted theme that promised to be “entirely without parallel in its time”.

In the event, Géricault never completed the painting, and returned to France. In 1821, he painted The Derby of Epsom. Géricault continually returned to the military themes of his early paintings, and the series of lithographs he undertook on military subjects after his return from Italy are considered some of the earliest masterworks in that medium. Perhaps his most significant, and certainly most ambitious work, is The Raft of the Medusa (1818–1819), which depicted the aftermath of a contemporary French shipwreck, Meduse, in which the captain had left the crew and passengers to die.The incident became a national scandal, and Géricault’s dramatic interpretation presented a contemporary tragedy on a monumental scale. The painting’s notoriety stemmed from its indictment of a corrupt establishment, but it also dramatized a more eternal theme, that of man’s struggle with nature. It surely excited the imagination of the young Eugène Delacroix, who posed for one of the dying figures.

Masters of Art: Théodore Géricault (1791   1824)   Théodore Géricault The Epsom Derby

Théodore Géricault – The Epsom Derby

The classical depiction of the figures and structure of the composition stand in contrast to the turbulence of the subject, and creates an important bridge between the styles of neo-classicismand romanticism. The painting fuses many influences: the Last Judgment of Michelangelo, the monumental approach to contemporary events by Antoine-Jean Gros, figure groupings by Henry Fuseli, and possibly the painting Watson and the Shark by John Singleton Copley.

The painting ignited political controversy when first exhibited at the Paris Salon of 1819; it then traveled to England in 1820, accompanied by Géricault himself, where it received much praise. While in London, Géricault witnessed urban poverty, made drawings of his impressions, and published lithographs based on these observations which were free of sentimentality.He associated much there with Charlet, the lithographer and caricaturist.

 

Masters of Art: Théodore Géricault (1791   1824)   Théodore Géricault Riderless Racers at Rome

Théodore Géricault – Riderless Racers at Rome

Masters of Art: Théodore Géricault (1791   1824)   Théodore Géricault Insane Woman

Théodore Géricault – Insane Woman

Masters of Art: Théodore Géricault (1791   1824)   Théodore Géricault Study of a Head

Théodore Géricault – Study of a Head

Masters of Art: Théodore Géricault (1791   1824)   Théodore Géricault Rideless Horse Races

Théodore Géricault – Rideless Horse Races

Masters of Art: Théodore Géricault (1791   1824)   Théodore Géricault Portrait of a Kleptomaniac

Théodore Géricault – Portrait of a Kleptomaniac

Masters of Art: Théodore Géricault (1791   1824)   Théodore Géricault Man with Delusions of Military Command

Théodore Géricault – Man with Delusions of Military Command

Masters of Art: Théodore Géricault (1791   1824)   Théodore Géricault An Officer of the Chasseurs Commanding a Charge

Théodore Géricault – An Officer of the Chasseurs Commanding a Charge

Masters of Art: Théodore Géricault (1791   1824)   Théodore Géricault The Wreck

Théodore Géricault – The Wreck

After his return to France in 1821, Géricault was inspired to paint a series of ten portraits of the insane, the patients of a friend, Dr. Étienne-Jean Georget, a pioneer in psychiatric medicine, with each subject exhibiting a different affliction.

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